Further Trial Information

Tokyo trials, Japanese war criminals

The Allies also established the United Nations War Crimes Commission (the UNWCC) in 1943.  The UNWCC collected evidence on Axis war crimes and drew up lists of suspected war criminals for Allied prosecution after the war.  In 1944, a sub-commission of the UNWCC was established in Chungking to focus on the investigation of Japanese atrocities.

Japanese war crimes’ spectator pass

By the later part of 1945, the Allied Powers had agreed on war crimes trials as a means of pursuing justice. This set the stage for post-WWII trials. A select group of higher-ranking military and political Axis leaders would be jointly tried by the Allies at the Nuremberg Trial (19 November 1945 – 1 October 1946) and the Tokyo Trial (3 May 1945 – 12 November 1945). In addition and separate from the Nuremberg and Tokyo Trials, individual Allied Powers and countries held national trials of Axis defendants in various locations, including Singapore.

Trials Chart (1)

Upon Japan’s surrender, the Allies began organizing war crimes investigations and prosecutions throughout Asia. At the Tokyo Trial, the Allies prosecuted only 28 high-ranking ‘Class A’ suspects from various government and military departments on charges linked to the waging of war and war crimes.  Hundreds of lower-ranking ‘Class B’ and ‘Class C’ suspects of diverse ranks were prosecuted at other Allied trials operating across Asia.

It is hard to arrive at the exact number of Allied trials held in Asia, as there continues to be access restrictions to some national trial records. Some latest estimates of the number of war crimes trials held by different national authorities in Asia are as follows: China (605 trials), the US (456 trials), the Netherlands (448 trials), Britain (330 trials), Australia (294 trials), the Philippines (72 trials), and France (39 trials).  In 1956, China prosecuted another four cases involving 1062 defendants, out of which 45 were sentenced and the rest acquitted.  The Allies conducted these trials before military courts pursuant to national laws of the Allied Power concerned.  Altogether 2244 war crimes prosecutions were conducted in Asia. 5700 defendants were prosecuted: 984 defendants were executed; 3419 sentenced to imprisonment; and 1018 acquitted.

Trials in Singapore

 

The British conducted national war crimes trials (the Singapore Trials) pursuant to a 1945 Royal Warrant adopted by the British executive under royal prerogative powers (1945 Royal Warrant). The British military was given the responsibility of implementing these trials in different locations across Asia and Europe.  330 trials were organized by the British military in Asia. Of these, 131 trials were conducted in Singapore.

From: Trove newspaper archives

As of mid-1946, the British military had established 12 war crimes courts in Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Rangoon, Hong Kong, and Borneo. Eight of 12 courts established were located in Singapore. There were also ‘travelling courts’ that made their way to particular locations to hear a case.

Darwin, Japanese crime trials

Singapore served as the base for the British military’s war crimes investigations and prosecutions in Asia. Investigations were conducted out of Goodwood Park Hotel. Post-war conditions in Singapore posed many challenges to the organizing of these trials. There was a shortage of food, basic necessities, and qualified personnel in post-war Singapore.

Trials conducted in Singapore concerned not only Japanese military atrocities perpetrated in Singapore but those committed in other parts of Asia (see Tials Chart 1 above).

Trial Courtroom Judges

A substantial number of trials addressed the abuse and neglect of POWs and civilian detainees in prisons and camps, such as Changi Prison, Sime Road Prison, Outram Road Gaol, and Selarang Barracks.

Click on images to enlarge and read.

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Military Humor – 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Farewell Salutes – 

Elbert Ausley – Schaumburg, IL; US Navy, WWII, USS Gambier Bay survivor

From: Cora Metz posters

Donald Campbell – Ponca City, OK; US Army Air Corps

William Duffy Sr. – Shannondell, PA; US Army, WWII, ETO, Lt. Colonel

Raymond M. Giles – Srague, WA; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, P-38 pilot, Lt. Col. (Ret.)

Bertha Holtwick – Boston, MA; US Army WAC, WWII, nurse

Jack Isaacs – USA; US Army Air Corps, WWII, ETO, 194/17th Airborne Division

James Milstead – Chicago, IL; USMC, WWII, CBI

Cyril Newdick – Maketu, NZ; RNZ Air Force # 79638, Sgt.

Emery Sutton – FL; US Navy, WWII, PTO / ETO, USS Wasp

C-130 Hercules crash victims in Australia

Final Mission

Rick A. DeMorgan Jr. – Navarre, FL; US Air Force, Flight Engineer / Firefighter

Paul Clyde Hudson –  Buckeye, AZ;  USMC, Naval Academy graduate, Lt. Col (Ret. 20 y.) / Firefighter, 1st Officer

Ian H. McBeth – Great Falls, MT; WY & MT National Guard, Lt. Col. / Firefighter, Captain

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About GP Cox

Everett Smith served with the Headquarters Company, 187th Regiment, 11th A/B Division during WWII. This site is in tribute to my father, "Smitty." GPCox is a member of the 11th Airborne Association. Member # 4511 and extremely proud of that fact!

Posted on January 27, 2020, in WWII and tagged , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink. 120 Comments.

  1. Yours is an excellent and informative blog. I love reading.

    Liked by 1 person

  2. Reblogged this on Fascist Bostonian and commented:
    #worldwar2 #wwii #alliedwarcrimes #allywarcrimes

    Like

  3. I have an interest and found it very interesting and we’ll researched.

    Like

  4. Excellent post, GP. This puts all the numbers into focus.

    Liked by 1 person

  5. I knew about Nuremberg Trial but did not know about Tokyo and other. Thank you for sharing.

    Liked by 1 person

  6. I’d not thought about military and prison people from the losing side of the war being prosecuted after the war was over, I’d seen from other posts that POWs were often treated abominably but I feel it’s a good thing that commanders realise if they go too far even in times of war they can be prosecuted afterwards.

    Best wishes
    Charlotte

    Liked by 1 person

  7. An interesting article. I remember reading somewhere that the Japanese had no respect for POW believing that soldiers should flight to the death. According to that article, this is why they disrespected and abused their prisoners so badly.

    Liked by 1 person

  8. So sad. I had never heard about this before, GP Cox.

    Liked by 1 person

    • I am discovering that many were unaware of the Pacific trials. I suppose Nuremberg received most of the media attention (especially in Europe.). I find that odd for North America and Pacific nations, being as Japan attacked us, not Hitler.

      Liked by 1 person

  9. The pie chart is quite interesting. Thanks again for the education, GP!

    Liked by 1 person

  10. This story needs to be told and retold

    Liked by 1 person

  11. GP, the numbers are utterly mind-blowing. Thank you for sharing this post. Hugs on the wing!

    Liked by 1 person

  12. Never heard or read before about. Good work, and thank you for the important information. Thank you, GP! Best wishes, Michael

    Liked by 2 people

  13. It’s good to know that a substantial number of war crimes were investigated and prosecutions brought. There will always be those who got away ‘Scott free’ though, which is the saddening part.

    Liked by 2 people

  14. Almost an industry. Evidently no shortage of criminals and crimes were committed. A very sad time in Earth History.

    Liked by 2 people

  15. I hadn’t realised that there were quite so many trials held and found your blog post quite reassuring really. I suspect that the tiny number for France is an effort, even in Vietnam, to hide the French fascination for Fascism with the Vichy French who fought on Hitler’s side in several theatres of the war.

    The Chinese suffered enormously. I just found this in Wikipedia. “When they captured Singapore:
    “The Japanese introduced the system of “Sook Ching”, meaning “purging through purification” in Chinese, to get rid of those, especially so ethnic Chinese, deemed to be hostile to the Empire of Japan (anti-Japanese elements in the local population). The Sook Ching Massacre claimed the lives of between 25,000 and 50,000 ethnic Chinese.

    The British were most upset in Singapore at the time by “Alexandra Hospital massacre” which is at
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Singapore#Alexandra_Hospital_massacre

    A more detailed account is available if you click on “British Military Hospital, Singapore”.

    Once again, behaviour beyond the understanding of the Allies.

    Liked by 3 people

  16. I’m far from a math whiz — in fact, I’m just the opposite and I know almost nothing about statistics. Still, I couldn’t help noticing the distribution of the executed, imprisoned, and pardoned. If you drew that as a graph, it would make a rough bell curve — which is extremely interesting, given the impossibility of such a thing being planned.

    And you’re right about the lemon cookies. They ruined them. (Here’s a heretical hint: the Oreo thins with the mint filling are better than the GSA thin mints, and even the family size of Oreos is cheaper!)

    Liked by 2 people

  17. I was never aware of the sheer number of trials, G. –Curt

    Liked by 2 people

  18. You may have addressed this in another post, but after seeing the number of acquittals, I’m curious about the burden of proof that the prosecutors needed for a guilty verdict.

    Liked by 1 person

  19. I had no idea GP! Didn’t think much of anything happened in Asia to Japanese war criminals outside of Tojo’s trial and execution. Thanks for the enlightenment! Best regards.

    Liked by 1 person

  20. I wonder why there were no trials in Korea, where so many atrocities occurred. I also wonder why the Japanese emperor wasn’t dethroned and imprisoned.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Some Koreans were tried, but not in Korea. The most prominent ethnic Korean convicted was Lieutenant General Hong Sa Ik, who orchestrated the organization of prisoner of war camps in Southeast Asia. In 2006, the South Korean government “pardoned” 83 of the 148 convicted Korean war criminals.(Why? I don’t know) One hundred-sixty Taiwanese who had served in the forces of the Empire of Japan were convicted of war crimes and 11 were executed.

      Like

  21. GP, the loss of the crew of the C-130 Crew hit us all hard in Australia. They were our “ brothers” and I can tell you that as the event unfolded strangers were crying and holding each other in the streets.
    These fires have been ugly and we are only just past the halfway mark of summer. The assistance from firemen from all over the world truly is appreciated and I’m sure the loss of life has been limited because of their efforts.
    Our grief is your grief.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Thank you very much for your kind words. I’ve known many a fireman in my life and know they would all go help if they could. I’ve been following the news on your fires and hope they come to an end soon!!!

      Liked by 1 person

  22. I didn’t hear about this subject until now. I agree that the UN had lost a lot of credibility since then. They do seem to care about real atrocities anymore

    Liked by 1 person

  23. I didn’t realize there were so many war trials that went on. Something new I learned today. Glad people were held accountable for their bad deeds. Unlike today . . .

    Liked by 1 person

  24. I agree with Beth. It had to be done, for everyone’s peace of mind.
    Good cartoons, GP! 🙂
    Best wishes, Pete.

    Liked by 1 person

  25. Love the cartoons–one seems very appropriate for today and we each have our own opinion to whom they are referring.

    Liked by 1 person

  26. I had no idea of any war trials, other than Nuremberg, of course. They were never mentioned in the USSR. Once again, thank you for educating me, GP!

    Liked by 1 person

    • I don’t usually recommend Wiki, but this is just a quick overview of the Soviet trials of the Japanese……
      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khabarovsk_War_Crime_Trials

      Liked by 1 person

      • Very interesting that, even though a privileged few heard about Khabarovsk trial (it was not covered in official press), no details were given, and the reports were published in English. Now that you got me curious, I’ll search the Russian sources.

        Liked by 1 person

        • Let me know what you locate, Dolly.

          Liked by 1 person

          • Quote from the one and only Russian source cited everywhere (my translation below):
            “Лица, осуждённые на непродолжительные сроки, отбыли их полностью и были отправлены на родину. Курусиму Юдзи перед отъездом ещё и повозили по Москве, показав ему достопримечательности советской столицы. Осуждённые на длительные сроки отбыли в заключении в тюрьме в Иваново только 7 лет, причём в достаточно комфортабельных условиях. Перед отправкой на родину в 1956 г. их одели по последней моде, в Хабаровске в их честь был устроен пышный банкет. Вернувшись в Японию, ни один из японских генералов, причастных к разработке БО, не написал мемуаров о «сталинских застенках», хотя им за это предлагались большие деньги.” (http://supotnitskiy.ru/book/book3-34.htm)
            Those convicted for minimal number of years, served fully and were sent to their homeland. Kurusimu Yudzi was even given a detailed tour of Moscow before his departure. Those who were convicted for 25 years served only 7 years in Ivanovo prison in fairly comfortable conditions. Before sending them back home in 1956, they were provided with fashionable clothing, and In Khabarovsk they were honored at a sumptuous banquet. Upon their return to Japan, none of the Japanese generals who had been involved in developing biological weapons wrote memoirs about “stalin’s gaols,” even though they were offered big money.

            Liked by 1 person

  27. This is a thorough presentation I’ve only read bits or segments before, but here is a more4 comprehensive picture of the trials. What a staggering feat.

    Liked by 1 person

  28. Thank you for honoring the C130 crew, GP. These men served their entire careers with distinction even to their final mission. Also, thank you for the war crimes report.

    Liked by 1 person

  29. It amazes me how you get so many authentic pictures. A good read! 💕

    Liked by 1 person

  30. I can only repeat my earlier comments on these sad necessities – and to agree entirely with Beth

    Liked by 1 person

  31. Thanks for this interesting nugget of information on war trials in Singapore. Goodwood Hotel still exists and I will remember your this post when I next dine there. My lil red dot info I never knew till you shared GP. Thanks

    Liked by 1 person

  32. Not sure the UN today is up to the same standards as then? Or have we just become hardened to atrocities? At least justice mattered then. Now everything is so political.

    Liked by 1 person

    • I know politics were involved back then too – or the trials wouldn’t have been so publicized – but I believe you’re right in saying the UN is not up to the standards of yesteryear.

      Liked by 1 person

  33. Loved the “Breaking News.”

    Liked by 1 person

  34. In your Farewell Salutes: Elbert Ausley, U.S.S. Gambier Bay survivor.
    Gambier Bay was one of the heroic “Jeep” carriers in the Battle of Samar:
    https://56packardman.com/2016/07/17/steamship-sunday-the-jeep-carriers-and-the-battle-of-samar/

    Liked by 1 person

  35. I appreciate that the leaders were brought to justice, but in many ways, I’m encouraged by the fact that almost 20% of the defendants were acquitted.

    I never say no to the Girl Scouts. No sense poking that bear.

    Liked by 1 person

  36. as challenging as this was, it was so necessary for so many reasons. an important process for the beginning of healing, to tell the world what has happened, to find some measure of justice, and, to find some closure

    Liked by 3 people

  37. I thank you very much for linking with my site. As I’ve told you in the past, I find I am unable to click on a ‘Like’ button or comment on your blog. I don’t know what the trouble is and I feel bad about it.

    Like

  1. Pingback: Further Trial Information — Pacific Paratrooper – Truth Troubles

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