Category Archives: Post WWII

“Voices from Vietnam” by: Kayleen Reusser / Review

‘Voices from Vietnam’ by: Kayleen Reusser

VOICES FROM VIETNAM

by:  Kayleen Reusser

 

Vietnam was the 10-year “Police Action” that developed and escalated in my generation’s  youth.  We saw casualty lists in the newspapers increasing daily.  Here in Kayleen Reusser’s book are interviews with the troops that managed to survive the horror that was the Vietnam War.

Keyleen Reusser

In this book, a background story is given for each contributor, their branch of military, method of service and then, what they experienced.  But the pains of war did not stop with their return home.  These gallant people told Kayleen of what they ran into upon returning to the United States.  The events, such as protesters, and name calling, are embarrassing, disheartening and downright disappointing to know how the people of this country were behaving toward these troops.

Despite the home front’s utter fear of the draft and disapproval of the war, these veterans carried on and we are privileged to read of their accomplishments.  There are photos of them, so that you can visualize the veteran to the story.

Vietnam veterans

This era was opposite that of WWII, but I hope “Voices from Vietnam” has the same affect on other readers as it had on me.  It brought back memories, but added an insight that can still be learned by this and future generations.  You will find yourself turning the pages and going from one story to another.

Just as Kayleen’s book, “We Gave Our Best” inspired me and gave me hope for our future and our military – I recommend this book wholeheartedly and hope many will give these men and women the time to tell their stories that no one wanted to hear in the ’60’s and ’70’s.

Through it all, they remained true and loyal.

This is an honest and straightforward depiction of that era – A MUST READ.

TO LOCATE KAYLEEN REUSSER AND HER BOOK – CLICK HERE!

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Military Humor – 

 

 

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Farewell Salutes – 

Walter Morgan Bryant – Delray Beach, FL; USMC, Vietnam, Sgt.

Leo Cummings, Jackson, MI; US Army, 11th Airborne Division

Jim Grewe – Edina, MN; US Army, Vietnam, 4th Infantry & 101st Airborne Division

Gilbert L. Harris – Spotsylvania, VA; US Army, 82nd Airborne Division, Green Beret

Stephen Hoke – Meadville, PA; US Army, Vietnam, 1st Calvary & 82nd Airborne Division

Jerry L. O’Nan – Lexington, KY; USMC, Vietnam, Pfc. # 2132524, E Co/4/2/3rd Marine Division, KIA (Quang Nam Province, SV)

Michael R. Paul – Williamsburg, KY; US Army, Vietnam, radio repair, 101st Airborne Division

Robert J. Reginald – Lindenhurst, NY; US Army, Vietnam, Cpl. # 52748547, B/502/2/101st Airborne Division, KIA (SV)

Timothy C. Reitmann – Valley Stream, NY; US Army, Vietnam, Spec. # 52748020, vehicle repair, A/2/5/11 Field Force, KIA (SV)

Eugene “Butch” Skoch – East Meadow, NY; US Army, Vietnam, Pfc., KIA

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Japan’s Underwater Aircraft Carrier I-400 series conclusion

Watch the surrender of a I-400 class Supersubmarine.

Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto called for the construction of 18 of the massive submarines carrying a total of 36 attack planes. The name of the special submarine class was abbreviated to Sen-toku.

The attack planes had to be designed from scratch. The need for speed, range and a decent sized bomb payload required tradeoffs. The wings had to be foldable to fit inside the tube, or hangar, atop the submarine. The design work, testing, and building of the plane was outsourced to the Aichi Aircraft Company.

The I-400 program did have its detractors in the heavily bureaucratic Imperial Japanese Navy.  After the defeat at Midway in early June 1942, Japan became more focused on defending the homeland and far less on possible attacks on the U.S. mainland using the large submarines. The death of Yamamoto in mid-April 1943, played further into the hands of conservative Japanese commanders. Cutbacks were ordered in the number of submarines to be built.  .

The first test flight of the Aichi attack plane occurred on November 8, 1943. The plane, called Seiran or “storm from a clear sky,” reportedly handled fairly well as the world’s first sub-borne attack bomber. The Japanese began compiling limited available information on the heavily fortified Panama Canal. Their analysis showed that destroying the gate opening onto Gatun Lake would create a massive outpouring of water, destroying the other gates in its path while rushing toward the Caribbean Sea.

After weeks of planning, the Japanese came up with a strategy to attack the Gatun locks at dawn when the gates were closed and presumably the defenses were lax. The planners had nearly a full year to formulate the attack for early 1945. But there were problems ahead because none of the submarines were complete and the planes were not yet in the production stage.

The Japanese labored on, and by the end of 1944 the I-400 and the smaller I-13 were completed and turned over to the Navy. In early January 1945, the I-401 was commissioned  and the I-14, the last of the underwater aircraft carriers, was put into service by mid-March 1945.

As an important aside, it should be noted that while preparations for the attack on the Panama Canal went forward, Vice Admiral Jisaburo Ozawa, vice-chief of the Naval General Staff, floated another idea for the use of the Sen-toku submarines. He suggested arming the Seiran planes with biological weapons to be unleashed against a populated area on the West Coast of the United States.

Dr. Shiro Ishii, Japan’s top virus expert and head of the Army’s notorious 731 unit in Manchuria, was consulted. He recommended that the planes drop plague-inflected fleas, something he had tested with success in China.  On the United States with San Francisco, Los Angeles, or San Diego he suggested as targets. The plan was discarded in late March by the head of the Army’s general staff who called it  “unpardonable on humanitarian grounds.”

In effect, the Japanese Army, which had led the development of biological weapons and had tested them on Chinese and American captives, nixed the idea of using the weapons late in the war on American civilians, perhaps in the belief that the war was already lost.

I-400 class submarine located off Oahu.

The subs were later scuttled.

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Upcoming –   For those in the U.S. and around the world, reading here – Happy Thanksgiving!! 2022

Thanksgiving from: Pacific Paratrooper | Pacific Paratrooper (wordpress.com)

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Military Humor – 

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Farewell Salutes – 

Walter Alesi – Salem, OH; USMC, WWII,PTO, 5/4th Marines

Norma Bidner (101) – Gibson City, IL; Civilian, WWII, Chanute Air Force Base

Take a moment to honor them.

Robert Black – Boise, ID; US Navy, Chaplain, the Gray Shepard Award, USS Racine

Raymond Cattell (101) – Birmingham, ENG; Royal Navy, WWII, HMS Glasgow & HMS King George V

Benge Elliot – Lamesa, TX; US Army, medical

Levin Ferrin (100) – Phoenix, AZ; US Army Air Corps, WWII, 82nd Airborne Division

Willis Holton – Jacksonville, FL; US Air Force, Korea

Francis P. Martin – Scranton, PA; US Army, WWII, ETO, Pfc. # 33457416, Co D/1/157/45th Infantry Division, KIA (Reipertswiller, FRA)

Walter Nies – Eureka, SD; US Army Air Corps, WWII, ETO, SSgt. # 37307545, Tail gunner, 96 BS/2 BG/15th Air Force, POW, KWC (Stalag Luft 6, GER)

James Rotunno – Brooklyn, NY; US Army, WWII, ETO, SSgt. # 32204944, Co K/3/157/ 45th Infantry Division, KIA (Reipertswiller, FRA)

Robert A. Wright – Whitesville, KY; US Army, Korea, Pfc. # 15381551, Co C/1/19/24th Infantry Division, KIA (Taejon, SK)

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USMC Birthday / Veterans Day 2022

The Marine Corps birthday has been commemorating on November 10 every year since 1775,  the year of establishment of Continental Marines. Every year the cake cutting ceremony with the conventional ball follows.

Saluting the U.S. Marine Corps

Marine Corps Birthday Cake

Sketch of the original Tun Tavern

 

 

 

 

 

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Veterans Day

On November 11th, we pause to reflect on the history of this great Nation and honor all those who fought to defend it. Originally titled “Armistice Day” and intended to celebrate the end of World War I, “the war to end all wars,” Veterans Day allows us to give thanks to veterans past and present, men and women from all walks of life and all ethnicities, who stood up and said, “Send me.” We recognize your sacrifices, your sense of duty and your love for this country.

Thank you – To ALL our veterans!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The 11th Airborne Division jumps again!

PLEASE CLICK ON IMAGES TO ENLARGE.

 

For many other countries who remain free thanks to their veterans, this day is called Remembrance Day.  I thank you!!

 

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Military Humor – 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Farewell Salutes – 

Lawrence “Junior” Anderson – Blanchard, MI; USMC, WWII, CBI, scout observer

Catherine Batoff – Cedar Lake, IN; US Army WAC, WWII

Jesse G. Bell – Roopsville, GA; US Navy, WWII, USS Case DD-370

Leo E. Cummings – Jackson, MI; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, 11th Airborne Division

Ralph Fiorio – Peekskill, NY; US Army, WWII, ETO, 8th Armored Division

David E. Holeman – Le Harpe, KS; US Air Force, WWII, PTO, # 646029, 17/24th Pursuit Group, POW, KWC (Cabanatuan Camp, P.I.)

Merle L. Pickup – Provo, UT; US Army Air Corps, WWII, CBI, Cpl. # 39832953, 393 BS/308 BG, KIA (India)

Paul J. Simons Jr. (102) – Wyoming, MO; US Army, WWII

James M. Triplett – King County, WA; US Army Air Corps, WWII, ETO, TSgt # 39202130, B-24 radio operator, 700BS/445 BG/2/8th Air Force

Allen H. Tuttle – King County, WA; US Army, Korea, Sgt. # 19261249, field artillery cannoneer, C Batt/38/2nd Infantry Division, POW, KWC (NK Camp # 5)

Larry A. Zich – Lincoln, NE; US Army, Vietnam, Chief Warrant Officer # 508603819, HQ/37/1st Signal Brigade, KIA

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Why is the only one standing the man with a wheelchair?

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General Yamashita, conclusion

General Yamashita – click to enlarge

One of the most monumental surrenders in the Pacific War was General Tomoyuki Yamashita. He had joined the Japanese Army in 1906 and fought the Germans in China in 1914, graduated Staff College in 1916 and began a military attaché in Switzerland as an expert on Germany, where he was to meet Tojo Hideki.

Tojo soon became very envious of the success and advancements Yamashita was achieving. This was especially true after the campaign in Malaya and bluffing the British into surrendering to his inferior forces in Singapore. Tojo used his influence to have Yamashita transferred to Manchuria before he could even announce his win to the Emperor. The general was sent to the Philippine Islands in 1944. A man who believed in the Samurai traditions and was highly devoted to the Emperor.

Many times, my friend Mustang Koji has given me information on this war, his site,  http://p47koji.wordpress.com and he supplied much of the data included here in today’s post. A visit to Koji’s website will give you stories about having relatives on both sides of the Pacific too.  Very interesting!

The initial contact with Gen. Yamashita

30 August – negotiations with the general were drawing to a close, but he remained in his mountain headquarters sending word with thanks to the American Commanders for their “sincere efforts and concerns,” and his regrets that he was unable to contact his forces in Cagayan Valley, Balete Pass and the Clark Field areas.

Small groups were beginning to turn themselves in and Major General Yuguchi, of the 103d Division in the Cagayan Valley had already agreed to the surrender terms, but was awaiting word from Yamashita. The 37th Infantry Division was expecting 3,000 to surrender on 2 September. Throughout the Philippine Islands, capitulations were being delivered from Japanese officers.

correspondents at the trials.

Some Japanese soldiers refused to believe that the Emperor had aired a demand for peace and skirmishes were reported on various islands. No American troops were listed as casualties. Those killed during that action with unfriendly combatants were Japanese, Filipino, Korean.  General Yamashita arrived for his surrender and behaved as a gentleman officer would, then was led away to Baguio City for confinement, surrender and trial.

Gen. Yamashita testifying.

In Time magazine, the writer ranted about Yamashita’s brutality during the Bataan Death March. The truth of the matter was – Yamashita was in Manchuria at the time. All in all, 5,600 Japanese were prosecuted during 2,200 trials. More than 4,400 men and women were convicted and about 1,000 were executed and approximately the same number of acquittals.

Translator, Masaksu Hamamoto,.

General Tomoyuki Yamashita’s case was the most famous of the American trials and was presided over by a military commission of 5 American general officers (none of which had any legal training) and held in the ballroom of the U.S. high commissioner’s residence. The charge was “responsibility for the death and murders tolerated – knowingly or not.” The general’s defense council, Col. Harry Clark, argued that no one would even suggest that the Commanding General of an American occupational force would become a criminal every time an American soldier committed a crime – but, Yamashita was just so accused.

The American Military Court in Manila sentenced Gen. Yamashita on 7 December 1945 and he was hanged on 23 February 1946.

The above is a modern photo of the Home Economics building of the Kiangan Central School where General Yamashita was first contacted. Later, he was sent to Baguio City for the formal surrender.
Photo is credited to, Dr. Walter Johnson

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From:  GP    To:  ALL WHO DARE TO ENTER

HAVE A SAFE AND HAPPY HALLOWEEN

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Military Humor –

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Farewell Salutes – 

Raymond J. Border – W. Lafayette, OH; US Navy, Iraq & Afghanistan, Chief Petty Officer, SeaBee, Bronze Star, KIA (Yahya Khel, AFG)

Loy E. Boyd – Wesley, AR; US Army, WWII, Signal Corps

“You Are Not Forgotten”

Ash Carter – Philadelphia, PA; US Government, Former Defense Secretary

Floyd F. Clifford – Douglass, KS; US Navy, WWII, PTO, Seaman 2nd Class # 3423274, USS Oklahoma, KIA (Pearl Harbor, HI)

David N. Defibaugh – Duncansville, PA; US Army, Korea, Cpl. # 13308573, C Co/3rd Combat Engineers/24th Infantry Division, KIA (Taejon, SK)

Robert Garza – Eagle Pass, TX; US Army, Vietnam, 173rd Airborne Brigade, Purple Heart

Zelwood A. Gravlin – New Britain, CT; US Army Air Corps, WWII, ETO, Sgt. # 31125292, gunner, 343 BS/98 BG/9th Air Force, KIA (Ploiesti, ROM), DFC

Howard G. Malcolm – Jefferson County, IL; US Army, Korea, Sgt. # 16307893, Speed Radio Operator, HQ Co/9/2nd Infantry Division, POW, KWC (Chosin, NK)

David Norcross – Shreveport, LA; USMC, Korea, Cpl., Charlie Company/1st Marine Division, wounded 3 times, one of the Chosin Few

Gregory Schall – Buffalo, NY; US Army Air Corps, WWII

William T. Wall – Marion, NC; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, Co G/187/11th Airborne Division

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4th of July 2022 🇺🇸

HAPPY 4TH OF JULY 2022

Respect – Honor – Celebration

Celebrating the birth of our nation and dedicated to those who have served and fought to preserve our freedom.

PLUS A CHANGE OF PACE FOR PACIFIC PARATROOPER – A HUMOROUS LOOK AND 5 MINUTE HISTORY OF America’s BIRTH!

ONE TEAM UNITED – LET’S TRY THAT AGAIN AMERICA!!

Military July 4th Humor –

Farewell Salutes –

William Anderson Jr. (100) – Ninety Six, SC; US Army, WWII, ETO, Purple Heart

Zane Baker (100) – Dayton, OH; US Army, WWII, PTO

William Coward Sr. – Ramseur, SC; USMC, WWII, PTO, MGunnery Sgt. (Ret. 33 y.)

Leon Diamond – Brooklyn, NY; US Navy, WWII

Donald W. Emery – Searsport, ME; US Navy, WWII, PTO, USS Hancock (CV-19), aviation ordnance

Grover Long – Adolphus, KY; US Navy, WWII

Howard McGhee – Sioux City, IA; US Army, WWII, ETO

Donald Morehead – St. Paul, MN; US Navy, WWII, signalman

Robert Pogna – Gunnison, CO; US Navy, WWII, USS Pocomoke

Hershel W. Williams – Quiet Dell, WV; USMC, WWII, PTO, Chief Warrant Officer 4 (Ret.), Purple Heart, Medal of Honor

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MEMORIAL DAY 2022

Today we commemorate our country’s most solemn national day of remembrance – Memorial Day. We honor the men and women of our military who have made the ultimate sacrifice in service to our country. The Army leadership especially wants to thank our Gold Star families. We, along with a grateful nation remain inspired by your remarkable strength and fortitude.

As you reflect on this day, remember it has been granted to us by some of the most noble, selfless, and courageous men and women our country has ever produced. Of those who laid down their lives in defense of our great nation, all the way back to those who gave their lives to establish it, we remember.

Our nation owes a debt to its fallen heroes that we can never fully repay.

For all of us who walk in the footsteps of those who have gone before us, it is our responsibility, our duty, and even our privilege to honor their sacrifice.

Stay safe. Stay ready. Stay strong

Ryan D. McCarthy,  Secretary of the Army

For Freedom

MSGID/CMC WASHINGTON DC DMCS//
SUBJ/MEMORIAL DAY MESSAGE 2022//

Notable humanitarian, educator, and tennis player Arthur Ashe once said, “True heroism is remarkably sober, very undramatic.  It is not the urge to surpass all others at whatever cost, but the urge to serve others at whatever cost.”  Each year, Memorial Day offers us an opportunity to reflect on those who have given the last full measure in service to our great Nation and with the aim of securing freedom throughout the world.  We owe the deepest debt of gratitude to all who paid the ultimate price in the line of duty, and to the loved ones they left behind.  This Memorial Day, let us remember the greatness of past generations and find inspiration in their courage, devotion, and selfless determination.

Gold Star family

2.  Each fallen hero is the embodiment of the valiant fighting spirit and devotion to duty that our Nation has come to expect of her Marines in times of crisis.  From every generation, a select few rise up and put themselves in harm’s way to protect the ideals on which America was founded.  Their stories serve as a continual reminder that freedom should not be taken for granted.  We can’t rest on the sacrifices of past generations – peace, freedom, and global security require constant vigilance.  Pacing threats around the globe uphold the truth of President Ronald Reagan’s sentiment that “freedom is never more than one generation from extinction.”
3.  So this Memorial Day, we honor the courageous actions and sacrifices of our fallen heroes, and we look to them for inspiration as we prepare for the next battlefields.  Technology and tactics may change, but the fighting spirit of United States Marines, Sailors, Soldiers, Airmen, and Coast Guardsmen remains strong.
4.  Enjoy this holiday weekend.  Stay safe, and remember you are a living memorial to all our fallen heroes.

Semper Fidelis,

David H. Berger, General, U.S. Marine Corps, Commandant of the Marine Corps.//

D-Day memorial, Beford, VA

Riverside Cemetery POW Memorial

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Not Military Humor – (Please click on images to read)

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Farewell Salutes – 

Richard Adams – Solon, OH; US Army, WWII, ETO

Winnie Ancar Sr. – City Price, LA; US Army, WWII, ETO, Interpreter

Anthony Bova – Plattsburgh, NY; US Air Force, Vietnam

Mildred Bourgeois – Cril, OK; US Navy WAVE, WWII, Aviation Radio Technician

James A. Coleman, USA; US Army, Korea, Sgt., Co I/3/19/24th Infantry Division, KIA (Hwach-on Reservoir, SK)

Luther Cranford – Eatonton, GA; US Navy, WWII, PTO

William J. Dees (101) – Fredericktown, MO; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, 11th Airborne Division

Anderson Dyer – USA; USMC, WWII, Navajo Code Talker

Raymond Femc – Forest City, PA; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, Co E/187/11th Airborne Division

Willie Goudeau (100) – Evergreen, LA; US Army, WWII, Major, Corps of Engineers

Marion Prince – Morganton, GA; US Army, Japanese Occupation, 511/11th Airborne Division

Larry Spencer – Wichita, KS; US Navy, Vietnam,F4B pilot, Commander, USS Ranger & Enterprise, POW, 4 Bronze Stars, 2 Purple Hearts

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https://pacificparatrooper.files.wordpress.com/2022/05/memorial-day-2022-e1653935275865.webp

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CHRISTMAS

TO ALL THOSE THAT BELIEVE IN FREEDOM AND PEACEMERRY CHRISTMAS!! 

FROM: PACIFIC PARATROOPER!!

PLEASE!  REMEMBER ALL THOSE THAT FOUGHT FOR US IN THE PAST…

THOSE THAT FIGHT FOR US TODAY…

AND FOR THOSE SPECIAL PEOPLE WHO WAIT PATIENTLY AT HOME

TO ALL THOSE WHO DO NOT CELEBRATE THIS HOLIDAY … I WISH YOU THE WARMTH AND PEACEFUL CONTENTMENT THAT IS REPRESENTED BY THIS SEASON !!!

TO READ MY FAVORITE CHRISTMAS POEM...  CLICK HERE!!

MILITARY HUMOR – 

CHRISTMAS FROM: BILL MAULDIN

OOPS!!!

CHRISTMAS FROM: BEETLE BAILEY

Now – Don’t wake me up too early!!

FROM: MARYlOU @ NATUURFREAK.COM…

Adm. Nimitz – 136th Birthday & USMC Raiders

Pacific War Museum, Nimitz statue

Chester W. Nimitz was born on February 24, 1885 – and today would have been his 136th birthday. The National Museum of the Pacific War is located in Fredericksburg. Texas because Nimitz grew up here and he was a major figure in the U.S. victory over Japan in WWII. 

Nimitz reached the pinnacle of naval leadership when he was promoted to the 5-star rank of Fleet Admiral in late 1944. As the Commander in Chief, Pacific Ocean Area, he led more than two million men and women, 5,000 ships and 20,000 planes in the Pacific Theater. 

Adm. Nimitz at the “Old Texas Roundup”


He was known to be a congenial and accessible leader and that sailors loved and respected him. He is pictured here at the “Old Texas Roundup” speaking to his guests –  sailors, soldiers and Marines who hailed from Texas. The barbeque was held on January 1944 on Oahu, Hawaii, and Nimitz reportedly invited 40,000 Texans to celebrate their heritage.

 

The following video may be too long for some to watch, but I do recommend a little scanning through it.  The original films are included, and I’m certain you will enjoy that.

 

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Maj. Gen. James F. Glynn, commander of Marine Forces Special Operations Command, addresses MARSOC personnel during the rededication ceremony at Camp Lejeune, N.C. Feb. 22, 2021. On Feb. 24, 2006, the Marine Corps combined several of its specialized and uniquely trained units, gave them a name and a commander and directed them to become pioneers in a new chapter of Marine Corps history. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Sgt Jesula Jeanlouis)

Fifteen years ago, the Marine Corps combined several of its specialized and uniquely trained units to become pioneers in a new chapter of Marine Corps history within Special Operations Command. While MARSOC can still be considered a relatively young unit, the history of Marine Corps specialized forces can be traced back much further than 2006.

The original Marine Raiders date back to World War II when the Marines were called on to solve complex problems posed by our nation’s adversaries. These specially trained Marines helped turn the tide in the early stages against the imperial Japanese Army. In honor and recognition of those that came before, the Marine Corps officially re-designated those serving with MARSOC as Marine Raiders in 2015.

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Military Humor – Navy style – 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Farewell Salutes – 

Scot Ames Jr. – Pekin, IN; US Air Force, 50th Flying Training Squadron, instructor pilot

Tanner W. Byholm – Ashland, WI; US Air Force Reserve

Joseph Couris – Philadelphia, PA; US Army Air Corps, WWII, Captain, pilot B-17 “Rose of York”

B. Paul Hart – Williams, AZ; US Navy, WWII, PTO, radioman

Harry Lord – Farmingham, MA; US Navy, PTO, Chief Boatswain’s Mate (Ret. 30 y.)

Paul Mitchem – McDowell County, WV; US Army, Cpl. Korea, Co K/3/34/24th Infantry Division. KIA (Ch’onan, SK)

John Osgood – Claremont, NH; US Army, WWII, ETO

Lada Smisek – Cleveland, OH; US Navy, WWII, PTO, Chief Machinist’s Mate, POW, KIA (P.I.)

William D. Tucker – USA; US Navy, WWII, Fireman 1st Class, USS Oklahoma, KIA (Pearl Harbor)

Michaux Turbeville – SC; US Army, Korea, Pfc., HQ Co/ 3/31/7th Infantry Division, KIA (Chosin Reservoir)

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The U.S.O.’s 80th Anniversary

“Until everyone comes home” is the motto of the U.S.O., the nonprofit organization has stuck to that motto, doing its best to bring support and entertainment to American military personnel around the world.

To connect to the organization, please click HERE!

Over the course of the USO’s 80-year history, the organization has seen it all: the beaches of France, the jungles of Vietnam, the deserts of Saudi Arabia and the mountains of AfghanistanBut most importantly, the USO has witnessed several generations of service members, military spouses and military families pass through its doors – and has provided them with crucial support by boosting their morale and keeping them connected to one another throughout their time in the military.

Boxing match w/ Sugar Ray Leonard & Bob Hope, Mickey Rooney as referee.

Starting in 1941 and in the eight decades since, the USO has remained committed to always standing by the military’s side, no matter where their service takes them.

Eleven months before the United States’ official entry into World War II, President Franklin D. Roosevelt was already creating a support system for the nation’s Armed Forces. Bringing together the Salvation Army, the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA), the Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA), the National Catholic Community Service, the National Travelers Aid Association and the National Jewish Welfare Board, these six organizations formed the United Service Organizations (USO) on 4 February 1941. The USO was created specifically to provide morale and recreation services to the troops.

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“Until everyone comes home” is the motto of the U.S.O., the nonprofit organization has stuck to that motto, doing its best to bring support and entertainment to American military personnel around the world.

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Military Humor – 

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Farewell Salutes – 

Jesse Anderson – Boise, ID; National Guard, Chief Warrant Officer 4, instructor pilot

Dale F. Bruhs – Milford, MD; US Army, Korea, 187th RCT

Millie Hughes-Fulford –  Mineral Wells, TX; US Army Reserve, Medical Corps / NASA, 1st female astronaut-

Michael Gastrich – Cincinnati, OH; US Navy, Petty Officer 2nd Class, air crew mechanic/flight engineer

Roland Horn – Des Moines, IA; US Army, WWII, Chief Warrant Officer (Ret.)

George Laubhan – Boise, ID; National Guard, Chief Warrant Officer 3, instructor pilot

Charlotte MacDonough – Boston, MA; Civilian, WWII, made B-17 fuel bladders

Ryan Mason – Carthage, NY & TX; US Army, Middle East, Sgt.

Matthew Peltzer – Napa, ID; National Guard, Chief Petty Officer 3, pilot

George P. Shultz (100) – Englewood, NJ; USMC, WWII, PTO / Secretary of Labor, Treasury and State

Julian Vargas – Silver City, NM; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, 187/11th Airborne Division

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Duct Tape and WWII

 

During the WWII, U.S. troops in the heat of battle had a strangely impractical way of reloading their weapons.

Cartridges used for grenade launchers was one example. Boxed, sealed with wax and taped over to protect them from moisture, soldiers would need to pull on a tab to peel off the paper tape and break the seal. Sure, it worked… except when it didn’t, soldiers were left scrambling to pry the boxes open.

waterproof ammo boxes

Vesta Stoudt had been working at a factory packing and inspecting these cartridges when she got to thinking that there had to be a better way. She also happened to be a mother of two sons serving in the Navy and was particularly perturbed that their lives and countless others were left to such chance.

Concerned for the welfare of sons, she discussed with her supervisors an idea she had to fabricate a tape made from strong, water-resistant cloth. And when nothing came of her efforts, she penned a letter to then-President Franklin Roosevelt detailing her proposal (which included a hand-sketched diagram) and closing by making a plea to his conscience:

“We can’t let them down by giving them a box of cartridges that takes a minute or two to open, enabling the enemy to take lives that might be saved had the box been taped with strong tape that can be opened in a split second. Please, Mr. President, do something about this at once; not tomorrow or soon, but now.”

Oddly enough, Roosevelt passed Stoudt’s recommendation on to military officials, and in two weeks time, she received notice that her suggestion is being considered and not too long after was informed that her proposal had been approved. The letter also commended her idea was of “exceptional merit.”

Before long, Johnson & Johnson, which specialized in medical supplies, was assigned and developed a sturdy cloth tape with a strong adhesive that would come to be known as “duck tape,” which garnered the company an Army/Navy “E” Award, an honor given out as a distinction of excellence in the production of war equipment.

Army/Navy E Pennant

While Johnson & Johnson was officially credited with the invention of duct tape, it’s a concerned mother who will be remembered as the mother of duct tape.

The initial iteration that Johnson & Johnson came up with isn’t much different from the version on the market today. Comprised of a piece of mesh cloth, which gives it tensile strength and rigidity to be torn by hand and waterproof polyethylene (plastic), duct tape is made by feeding the materials into a mixture that forms the rubber-based adhesive.

Unlike glue, which forms a bond once the substance hardens, duct tape is a pressure-sensitive adhesive that relies on the degree in which pressure is applied. The stronger the pressure, the stronger the bond, particularly with surfaces that are clean, smooth and hard.

Duct tape was a huge hit with soldiers due to its strength, versatility and waterproof properties. Used to make all sorts of repairs from boots to furniture, it’s also a popular fixture in the world of motorsports, where crews use strips to patch up dents.

During the war duck tape was distributed to soldier’s to use in sealing ammo cans. Industrious soldiers quickly started using it for all manner of repairs thanks to its strong adhesive and sturdy construction. When millions of soldiers returned home from the war, they brought their respect for duct tape with them, rapidly introducing the now ubiquitous tape into popular culture.

Film crews working on-set have a version called gaffer’s tape, which doesn’t leave a sticky residue. Even NASA Astronauts pack a roll when they go on space missions.

on aircraft

Besides repairs, other creative uses for duct tape include strengthening cellular reception on the Apple iPhone 4 and as a form of medical treatment for removing warts called duct tape occlusion therapy, which research hasn’t been proven to be effective.

“Duct” or “duck” tape?

In this case, either pronunciation would be correct. According to Johnson & Johnson’s website, the original green sticky cloth tape got its name during world war II when soldiers started calling it duck tape for the way liquids seem to roll off like water off a duck’s back.

Not long after the war, the company launched a metallic-silver version called duct tape after executives discovered it can also be used to seal heating ducts. Interestingly enough, however, scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory conducted field tests on heating ducts and determined that duct tape was insufficient for that purpose.

By :  Tuan C. Nguyen

CLICK ON IMAGES TO ENLARGE.

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Military Humor – 

DUCT TAPE DOESN’T FIX EVERYTHING!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Farewell Salutes – 

Steven Bailey – Houston, TX; US Army, Kuwait, 82nd Airborne Division, Bronze Star

Harry Beal – Meyersdale, PA; US Navy, 1st SEAL

Robert Collins – Rockaway, NJ; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, Co. A/127th Engineers/11th Airborne Division

Thomas Hard Sr. – Chicago, IL; US Navy, WWII, PTO, POW

Reed Mattair – Williston, FL; US Army, WWII, PTO

Paul Moore Sr. – Portsmouth, VA; US Navy, WWII, PTO, USS West Virginia, SeaBee, Pearl Harbor survivor

Edward Sulewski – So. Milwaukee, WI; US Army, Korea, 187th RCT

Alexander Suprin – brn: Poland; USMC, WWII, PTO

Thomas Whitaker – Marquette, MI; US Army, WWII, Engineering Corps

Dominic Zangari (100) – Lancaster, PA; US Army Air Corps, WWII, Korea & Vietnam, (Ret. 34 y.)

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