19 February 1942 (2)

Camp Swift, Texas

Camp Swift, Texas

 

Regardless of what two resources I happened to look into saying that only the Japanese were relocated, German and Italian immigrants and visitors alike were interned during WWII.  Also, under the pressure of the American government, Latin-American countries arrested more than 4,000 German-Latin Americans.  Most of these people were sent north to the US camps and at least that number of internees were were later exchanged for Americans being held on German soil.

German-Italian Detention Centers

German-Italian Detention Centers

 

Both of these groups were not detained to the extent of the Japanese.  There were far too many, numbers that went into the millions.  Rather, they were arrested individually and sent to the camps seen in the map above.  The German total was approximately 11,000 and the Italian sources stated 1,521 to 3,000.

Secretary of War, Stimson said the Italians were “potentially less dangerous as a whole than those of other enemy nationalities…the siege of Italian population and the number of troops and facilities which would have to be employed to deal with them; their inclusion in the general plan would greatly overtax our strength.”  Later, in November 1942, it was announced that the Italians were “no longer considered aliens of enemy nationality.”

Forrest, TN

Forrest, TN

The House Select Committee investigating the evacuation came to similar conclusions.  At the bottom of a full text of lengthy hearings regarding the German and Italian situation, the passage reads___”From the reasons mentioned above…Indeed, this committee is prepared to say that any such proposal is out of the question if we intend to win this war.”

Crystal City, Volunteer Fire Dept. & sketch of cottage homes

Crystal City, Volunteer Fire Dept. & sketch of cottage homes

General Drum, leading the Eastern Defense Command, stated…”Mass evacuation is not contemplated.”  But, General DeWitt, of the Western Defense Command, called mass evacuation___”a military necessity” and “definite instructions to the contrary would exempt him from all responsibility for the consequences.”

Click on images to enlarge.

A fellow blogger, James Rada, Jr. has a very interesting article on German POWs who worked in Gettysburg, PA during the war, which can be located HERE!

**********************                                                                                       *****************************

In Canada, the Minister of Justice could detain anyone acting “in any manner prejudicial to the pubic safety of the state.”  Therefore, both enemy and japannot.gifCanadianCanadian citizens were subject to internment.  Around 40 camps held an estimated 30,000 to 35,000 prisoners at various times.

Most of the German internees were members of German-sponsored organizations or leaders of the Nazi Party in Canada.  Hundreds of Germans on Canadian soil were accused of spying and subversion.  The camps also served to house captured enemy soldiers, such as over 700 German sailors captured in East Asia and sent to Canada.

After Italy entered the war, a number of prominent Italians and Canadian fascists, notably Adrien Arcand of Montréal, were interned.  About 600 Italian men suspected of sympathizing with fascism were placed into 3 camps: Kananaskis, Alberta, Petawawa, Ontario and Fredericton, New Brunswick.  This last camp also held 517 Jews sent from England by Winston Churchill, who suspected them of being disloyal.

Approximately 20,000 Japanese-Canadians were removed from the Pacific Coast in 1942.  Many were housed in isolated areas and had their activities severely restricted.  The Army and Secretary of State shared administrative responsibility for the camps.

**************************                                                                                   ************************

The information on Australia and New Zealand was supplied in the previous post, in the comment section, by Norma @ Thru My Eyes and Gallivanta @ Silk Ann Threades.   Please show them your support for their efforts.

######################################################################################################

HUMOR of TODAY ______

image001image002

 

 

 

#######################################################################################################

FAREWELL SALUTES – 

Allan Arnold – Wayland, MA; US Army, Vietnam

Marine Bugler

Marine Bugler

Gerald Boissonneault – Quebec, CAN; RC Navy, WWII

Patricia Boyd – Medical Lake, WA; US Air Force, Desert Storm (Ret. 21 years)

Frederic Edouard de Bray III – Atlanta, GA; US Army, Korea, 1st Lt.

Ron Forsyth – CAN; RC Air Force, WWII, 403rd Squadron, ETO, Flt. Lt.

Desmond Howitt – North Cote, NZ; NZ # 61034, 2NZEF, 14LTAA Gunner, WWII

Frank Manigault – Charleston, SC; US Army & US Navy

Hilary “Larry” Olmscheid – Providence, OR; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, 11th A/B Div.

Red Ryder – Toronto, CAN; RC Air Force, WWII, ETO, 403rd Squadron, pilot

Donald Stonert – Ft. Wayne, IN; US Army, WWII

George Taylor – Lufkin, TX; US Army, WWII

Donald Wolsfelt – Montgomery, IL; US Army, Korea

######################################################################################################

 

 

Advertisements

About GP Cox

Everett Smith served with the Headquarters Company, 187th Regiment, 11th A/B Division during WWII. This site is in tribute to my father, "Smitty." GPCox is a member of the 11th Airborne Association. Member # 4511 and extremely proud of that fact!

Posted on November 6, 2014, in WWII and tagged , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink. 50 Comments.

  1. A bit slow at discovering this article but have been in several areas where prisoners were kept so enjoyed the Gettysburg link. The prisoners did a lot of physical work while they were here,but I think they were better cared for. Some of those German prisoners were top rate scientists, who helped advance our technology, if I recall correctly.

    Like

  2. Thanks for the excellent James Rada Jr link.

    Like

  3. Great historical read, was quite interesting to read the history of the Internees.
    The idea may have had political ideology, but in practice, it was unfeasable.
    Cheers
    Ian

    Like

  4. It is interesting reading the comments, GP. Even in the 60s, my high school teachers taught us about the camps and the fact that they were an injustice to the large majority of the people incarcerated. –Curt

    Like

    • Where did you go to high school, Curt? (If you don’t mind me asking.) You are the first one to say you learned this in school. Very interesting. The Executive Order was extremely illegal, I’m surprised your teachers exposed that fact.

      Like

      • I don’t remember if they discussed the legality of the issue as much as the fact that it was wrong. There were a number of Japanese Americans in Northern California who had been impacted. I graduated from high school in 1961. My Junior and Senior teachers in both US history and Civics were very liberal. I suspect it wasn’t in the textbooks. 🙂 –Curt

        Like

  5. Interesting, GP. Only this weekend, my brother casually told me a story about my Dad. I don’t know how accurate any of it is so I’ve got to try do some research on my own to see what I can find out. I knew my Dad used to work for the railway and I think it was the C&O. I mentioned it to my brother and he said that during the war, Dad managed a dining car on a prisoner transport train in West Virginia. He said they transported Japanese and German POWs to a camp in WV. He said Dad was furious with the Germans because the US Govt was making him feed fine steaks to the Germans while our own soldiers were not eating that well. He was sick of their Heil Hitlers, etc. I had never heard of anything like this. I’m trying desperately to get my brother to tell me any stories he can. Wish me luck!

    Like

    • Yes, I sure do wish you the very best of luck with your brother. For some reason those steaks/prisoners/our troops sounds somehow vaguely familiar. Please DO keep me informed on what you find out and keep hounding your brother!! Thanks, Linda!

      Like

  6. Enjoy reading your post interesting history…There were prisoner of war camps here in Cowra N.s.w and One in Victoria can not think of hand where it was now may have been Heidelberg.Not sure.

    Like

  7. Great post – interesting topic. Also likes the humor pic with the bazooka pitching machine gave me a chuckle. 💥

    Like

  8. I remember seeing men, dressed in work clothes with POW painted on the back of their shirts, working the grounds of Fort Snelling. We thought they were actual German POW,s; but it seems they were actually ‘American citizens’ interned in the St. Paul jail and used as a ‘labor force’ during the day.

    Like

    • I did not know that. As much as I know about Ft. Snelling is: that they acquired many programs thru the Civilian Conservation Corps (work projects), they housed the beginnings of the Nisei Intelligence units before they moved to Camp Savage and served as an induction base for something like 600,000 new G.I. recruits. Busy place. Thanks for adding in here, Don!

      Like

  9. I knew there were at least three German POW camps in my state, but this is the first I knew about the ones for civilians. That’s why I love reading this blog, gpcox! I frequently learn something new about things I thought I knew well.

    Like

    • We’ve gotten bits and pieces over the years, but when you start researching these days – web sites are everywhere. There is basically enough data for me to do a post on each one of those camps! It’s incredible we were kept in the dark so long. If it wasn’t for my father, Smitty – I wouldn’t have known either!! Thanks for the comment, Doug.

      Like

  10. gp, Well, me speaking as an Italian American, you warned me this post was coming. Thanks, gp. I was not aware of such camps for Germans & Italians even with the numbers paling in comparison to Japanese internment over the 100,000 mark. Now with the activities of the German Bond groups & camps in the US, I am not surprised. Great job re history here once again….proving that the devil is in the details when going from the American History textbook overview that kids get from us history teachers as opposed to the reality of those times during WWII. I know you have said that such expansion of the survey approach to history is not possible. But all it takes……..& I have seen this in textbooks…..is a box on the printed page with a small paragraph or two & a photo with references to specific other sources if the teacher & students are interested to expand their knowledge on the topic. GREAT JOB to my historian once again!!!!!!!!!!!! Phil

    Like

    • That is an outstanding compliment from a history teacher!! I am speechless as how to respond. But – I do appreciate your encouragement and hope you will help add any data you see that I’ve missed on any of the future posts. Thank you very much, Phil!!!!!

      Liked by 1 person

  11. I was reading the history of my church and in the summer of 1939 a German man (2nd generation American actually) was appointed as minister to the church. By 1940 much of the congregation had left in protest and in the summer of 1940 the bishop had to appoint a new minister of the church.

    It wasn’t just the government that participated in this sort of thing, people in general went along and often actively supported these activities.

    Like

    • Fear does strange things to people. I am glad that you included this history here in the comments for all to see and learn. Thank you, Andrew for participating.

      Like

  12. It’s great that you’re posting about this sore spot in U.S. history. This subject needs to be out in the open

    Like

    • So true! Being that it was an Executive Order by FDR ( the man people were pushing as a hero) it seems the facts were hidden for quite some time. Notice where the camps were build, not heavily populated areas, especially for the Japanese-Americans.

      Like

  13. I’m surprised about this , too . Always something to learn from your posts . Thanks.

    Like

    • It seems we so often hear about the camps in other countries run by an enemy, but never any fault of our own. With as many people who have stated that they were unaware of this ever happening, it is quite obvious our school systems slipped right over it. Thanks for visiting today, Dan.

      Like

  14. Wow. I had no idea. Great post about a little-known topic.

    Like

  15. I never knew this and thought the internment only applied to Japanes and Japanese-Americans. Thanks for posting. I enjoyed the humor of today.

    Like

    • Happy to be your teacher today, Chris. No one is ever too young or old to learn something new. I am always learning myself, not only by my research, but from what the readers put in the comments. Thank you for viewing today!!

      Liked by 1 person

  16. Your article does not surprise me. Paranoia ran rampant. I enjoy reading Ursula Hegi. She writes about the German civilian during WWII and the suffocating hold National Socialism had on the average civilian. She’s a US Citizen and one of her books is non-fiction where she interviews hundreds of German Americans and the psychological shame Germans in America felt–they were quite hated and discriminated against. It’s called ‘Tearing the Silence’.

    Like

  17. I never knew this. Perhaps it was brought up in my history classes but I cannot remember. Having lived in Michigan, I knew about places in Allegan and around Battle Creek housing German POWs but never about interned persons. Thanks for bring this to light!

    Like

    • My pleasure, Jim. All history needs to be recorded and remembered, but our school systems probably didn’t care for the embarrassment – I don’t recall learning about it in school, my father Smitty told me. Good to see you today!

      Like

  18. Reblogged this on A Conservative Christian Man.

    Like

  19. The internments were shameful. Some of our most prominent Canadians, some gifted authors, of Japanese origin have written of their memories as children in those camps and the humiliation their families felt. Great post.

    Like

  20. Excellent post GP. I found the piece about Canada very interesting “both enemy and Canadian citizens were subject to internment” if found to be suspicious. Also the amount of Japanese and Germans interned compared to the Italians who weren’t thought to be as much of a threat. Interesting. Thanks for the mention too 🙂

    Like

    • No problem, Norma. Yes, the US weren’t the only ones doing these camps and I think the actions of the Italian armies might have had some influence on the governments’ decision.

      Like

  21. I remember I was in high school the first time I heard of those camps, and was horrified such a thing happened in the US; and no one had mentioned it all through school. I asked my American History teacher about the camps, and he told me it never happened. Denial did not make truth go away. I did have to earn about this chapter of our history on my own.

    Liked by 1 person

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: