Additional Surrenders

Okinawa

Okinawa

Once the Emperor gave his speech for peace, the Japanese gave their surrenders across the Pacific, but not all went as smoothly as the one held on the USS Missouri. As late as 31 August, according to U.S. Intelligence reports, the Japanese refused to believe the surrender reports and ambushed a SRD party and three of the Japanese were killed.

In the Ryukyus, things were far more simple. The senior officer in the Sakishima Gunto, Lt. General Gon Nomi, Toshiro, whose headquarters was on Miyako Shima, had been given authority to conclude a peace treaty for all Army and Navy forces in the Sakishima Gunto, Daito Islands and the islands in the Okinawa Gunto not already under American control. The official papers were signed on 7 September 1945, with General Stillwell presiding.

Gen. Hata at surrender table with the Soviets

Gen. Hata at surrender table with the Soviets

General Shunroku Hata and his Army had taken only three weeks in April-May of 1944 to rout 300,000 Chinese soldiers in Honan to secure the Peking-Hankow railroad. He then moved south and then west to meet up with the Japanese forces in French Indochina. The 14th Air Force and the Chinese Air Force could not stop the offensive and by the end of May, General Marshall and the Joint Chiefs of Staff basically wrote off the Chinese Theater. Yet in the end, Gen. Hata signs the surrender.

Lord Louis Mountbatten with MacArthur

Lord Louis Mountbatten with MacArthur

12 September, Lord Mountbatten accepted the surrender of all enemy forces in Southeast Asia in Singapore. Once again, the Union Jack was flying over Government House. But, due to Britain’s overstretched resources, Japanese soldiers were used to maintain law and order in the region. Europe’s colonialism was severely damaged and in 1947, Britain granted independence to India and Pakistan.

17 August, American parachutists landed near Nanking on the Wse-hsien interment camp. The Japanese were forced to protect the troopers from the unrest (actually chaos) erupting in the area between Communist and Nationalist armies. On 9 September, General Ho Chin accepted the Japanese surrender of China (except Manchuria, Formosa [now Taiwan] and Indochina north of the 16th parallel in the name of Chiang Kai. Mao’s forces stayed away even though Allied officials were present. By not being at Central Military Academy in Whampoa, he was in violation of the Potsdam accords and went on to accept his own regional surrenders.

The British had been slow in retaking Hong Kong and revolts broke out. The POWs were not receiving food and the Chinese population caused riots in the streets. The British civil servants eventually took over while the Japanese kept the order. 16 September, the official surrender took place, but not until November were all Japanese troops in the New Territories relieved, disarmed and repatriated.

After a meeting in Rangoon, Mountbatten arranged for the Allied forces to enter Siam and Indochina. Thirteen days later, he flew his 7th Indian Division to Bangkok to move onward to Saigon. They were to assist the French in securing the southern half of Vietnam again as a French colony. The Americans felt that the French had already bled the country dry over the past century and so here – the start of the Vietnam War that would last until 1974.

Australian & British POWs on Borneo

Australian & British POWs on Borneo

Thailand had survived by playing both sides while attempting to appear neutral. Japanese General Hamada, responsible for heinous POW atrocities, committed seppuku.

Indonesia was grateful to the Japanese for throwing out the Dutch and declared their independence. Although British and Dutch troops made attempts to return them to colonization, they resisted. The Americans moved in with orders to disarm the Japanese and then leave. It would take four years of fighting before the Hague would recognize Indonesia as a sovereign country.

Burma disliked the Japanese, but they had given them a taste of independence from the British. They took no part in the surrender proceedings. After the Japanese were shipped home and fighting resumed with the British, the independent nation nation was established 4 January 1948.

India had acquired their own army under the Japanese Co-Prosperity Sphere, but not independence. After the war, the British tried in vain to hold the country, but hostility forced them to grant India their freedom in 1947. The transition was overseen by Governor General Mountbatten.

Korea - September 1945 - being relieved of all weapons

Korea – September 1945 – being relieved of all weapons

In Korea, the Japanese were ordered to sweep Inchon harbor of mines before the American fleet arrived. The Japanese, here again, were needed to maintain order until Koreans could be trained to contain the mobs. Korea had actually been ignored as far as surrender and removal of the Japanese. The U.S. had gone there to disarm the enemy. The end result of the incompetent handling of Korea during and after WWII resulted in the Korean War.

#############################################################################################

Resources: “The Last Great Victory” by Stanley Weintraub;

Advertisements

About GP Cox

Everett Smith served with the Headquarters Company, 187th Regiment, 11th A/B Division during WWII. This site is in tribute to my father, "Smitty." GPCox is a member of the 11th Airborne Association. Member # 4511 and extremely proud of that fact!

Posted on April 18, 2013, in Uncategorized, WWII and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink. 25 Comments.

  1. A balanced post, in our part of the world, when we talk about history, we also remember that if it weren’t for WW2, we wouldn’t have gotten the independence we had been fighting for.

    Like

    • I hope I had made that clear. Japan actually succeeded in helping Asia to get out from under the colonization.

      Like

      • Yes, you mentioned it several times.

        That’s why I am also thankful to Japan 🙂

        My History teacher during secondary school was an Indian national who trained in the UK. She was quite patriotic and quite “Asia for the Asians” – she was also old enough to remember/have lived while Mahatma Ghandi was still alive and remembered WW2. It rubs off on students – those passions 😉

        Like

        • That is the kind of teacher we all hope to have, I was lucky enough to have a few. I can understand the need for Asians wanting Asia for themselves – it was their own land for cryin’ out loud!

          Like

  2. Cool Blog! and thanks for taking time to visit my blog.

    Like

  3. What a massive exercise and how interesting that the Japanese troops were needed in some cases to help the victors maintain order. They must have found their situation very strange. The untangling of the knots created by war is always a messy business and I am not sure that countries have gotten any better at it.

    Like

  4. I had never even thought of what happened to all of those other countries that had been invaded by the Japanese. Very interesting. I also never hear of the goal to remove European colonialism from Asia. Where can I find out more about his?

    Like

  5. The details you provide bring this chapter in history to life. Great post !!!

    Like

  6. Great post–it tied in nicely with the post-war world and the cold war era.

    Like

  7. More history I was ignorant of. It’s especially interesting to read about the repercussions of the war. It’s interesting to ponder how invasion and conquest were engines for the eventual independence of some of the countries . . . and for continued strife in others.

    Thank you once again for a well-presented slice of history.

    Like

    • The Japanese may have lost the war, but their Co-Prosperity Sphere did accomplished it’s goals in some countries; to get European colonialism out of Asia.

      Like

  8. you are doing justice to many by giving us this rare kind of info. continue with the good work my friend.do give us this treasure you posses; i long to read your next post. thank you.

    Like

  9. Pierre Lagacé

    A reblogué ceci sur Lest We Forget and commented:
    Another great post from Pacificparatrooper

    Like

  10. Pierre Lagacé

    What more is there to say about this…
    Great post again.

    Like

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: