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The 4th Spy at Los Alamos – part 1 / Cindy Bruchmann book review

Last fall, a pair of historians revealed that yet another Soviet spy, code named Godsend, had infiltrated the Los Alamos laboratory where the world’s first atom bomb was built. But they were unable to discern the secrets he gave Moscow or the nature of his work.

However, the lab recently declassified and released documents detailing the spy’s highly specialized employment and likely atomic thefts, potentially recasting a mundane espionage case as one of history’s most damaging.

It turns out that the spy, whose real name was Oscar Seborer, had an intimate understanding of the bomb’s inner workings. His knowledge most likely surpassed that of the three previously known Soviet spies at Los Alamos, and played a crucial role in Moscow’s ability to quickly replicate the complex device. In 1949, the Soviets detonated a knockoff, abruptly ending Washington’s monopoly on nuclear weapons.

Stuart Seborer

The documents from Los Alamos show that Mr. Seborer helped devise the bomb’s explosive trigger — in particular, the firing circuits for its detonators. The successful development of the daunting technology let Los Alamos significantly reduce the amount of costly fuel needed for atomic bombs and began a long trend of weapon miniaturization. The technology dominated the nuclear age, especially the design of small, lightweight missile warheads of enormous power.

Mr. Seborer’s inner knowledge stands in contrast to the known espionage. The first Los Alamos spy gave the Soviets a bomb overview. So did the second and third.

Mr. Klehr, an emeritus professor of politics and history at Emory University, said the new information cast light on a furtive boast about the crime. Last fall, in the scholarly paper, the two historians noted that Mr. Seborer fled the United States in 1951 and defected to the Soviet bloc with his older brother Stuart, his brother’s wife and his mother-in-law.

Ship manifest

The paper also noted that an F.B.I. informant learned that a communist acquaintance of the Seborers eventually visited them. The family lived in Moscow and had assumed the surname Smith. The visitor reported back that Oscar and Stuart had said they would be executed for “what they did” if the brothers ever returned to the United States.

Last fall, the historians described the Seborers as a Jewish family from Poland that, in New York, became “part of a network of people connected to Soviet intelligence.” Both Oscar and Stuart attended City College, “a hotbed of communist activism,” the historians wrote.

Ethel and Julius Rosenberg

Stuart took a math class there in 1934 with Julius Rosenberg, they reported. In a notorious Cold War spy case, Mr. Rosenberg and his wife, Ethel, were convicted of giving the Soviets atomic secrets. In 1953 they were executed at Sing Sing Prison in Ossining, N.Y., orphaning their two sons, ages 6 and 10.

The scholarly paper, written with John Earl Haynes, a former historian at the Library of Congress, appeared in the September issue of Studies in Intelligence. The journal, a C.I.A. quarterly, is published for the nation’s intelligence agencies as well as academic and independent scholars.

The Times’s article ran on Nov. 23, a Saturday. Four days later, a reporter sent the scholarly paper to Los Alamos and asked if the lab’s archive had any photos of Mr. Seborer or relevant documents.

Two weeks later, on Dec. 10, the lab emailed 10 pages of newly declassified documents from 1956. The material consists mainly of a correspondence between a top security official at Los Alamos and the lab’s branch of the Atomic Energy Commission, a federal agency that oversaw the weapons development site. The letters discussed an F.B.I. investigation of Mr. Seborer’s espionage but gave no specifics on what he may have delivered to Moscow. Instead, the exchange dwelled on the secrets available to him.

The documents include pages from a 1945 Los Alamos telephone directory as a way of confirming the suspect’s lab employment.

All three previously known Los Alamos spies told the Soviets of a secret bomb-detonation method known as implosion. The technique produced a bomb far more sophisticated than the crude one dropped on Hiroshima on Aug. 6, 1945. A prototype of the implosion device was tested successfully in the New Mexican desert in July 1945, and a bomb of similar design was dropped on Nagasaki weeks later, on Aug. 9. Four years later, the Soviets successfully tested an implosion device.

The early bombs relied on two kinds of metallic fuel, uranium and plutonium. The bomb that was dropped on Hiroshima worked by firing one cylinder of uranium fuel into a second one, to form a critical mass. Atoms then split apart in furious chain reactions, releasing huge bursts of energy.

In contrast, the implosion bomb started with a ball of plutonium surrounded by a large sphere of conventional explosives. By design, their detonation produced waves of pressure that were highly focused and concentrated. The waves crushed inward with such gargantuan force that the dense ball of plutonium metal was compressed into a much denser state, triggering the atomic blast.

To be continued………..

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Book Review – “Inside The Gold Plated Pistol”  by: Cindy Bruchmann

I am not adept at doing book reviews and I rarely do one for a fiction piece, but our fellow blogger and U.S. Navy Veteran, Cindy Bruchmann, has created a very unique volume.

Inside the Gold Plated Pistol, Cynthia Bruchmann

As characters are being introduced, you are following the plot through the eyes of that person.  With each view, the story-line progresses.  Early on you will discover what is Inside the Gold Plated Pistol, but you will need to continue reading to see what becomes of the people surrounding the mystery.

I enjoyed Cindy’s insistence on researching 1928 and on into the 1930’s era.  The Native American relationship with the white man (or woman).  Her use of detail only enhances the tale.  I was amazed to learn that Hershey’s Kisses were around that long ago, what the movie industry was like or that Bob’s Big Boy diners started back then – who knew?

I don’t think I should continue any further, lest I give huge spoilers away – and that is not my intent.  But I do hope I piqued your interest!!

Check it out!!

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Military spy Humor –

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Farewell Salutes – 

John T. Avella – brn: Solopaca, ITA/Tom’s River, NJ; US Army, WWII, ETO, 405th Infantry, Bronze Star

George Correia Sr. – Tiverton, RI; US Navy, WWII

Verne Hinkle – Jackson, MI; US Army, WWII, infantry

Andrew Klein – Forest Grove, OR; US Navy, WWII, PTO, Lt. JG, USS Sanborn, navigator

Ruth McVaden (100) – MS; US Army WAC, WWII, ETO, Specialist, nurse

John J. Murphy – Chicago, IL; US Air Force, Vietnam, jet engine mechanic

Ryan S. Phaneuf – Hudson, NH; US Air Force, Afghanistan, Captain, 37th Bomb Squadron, KIA (E-11 crash)

Charles Ruggles – Tucson, AZ; US Army Air Corps, WWII,PTO, Co. I/511/11th Airborne Division

Lester Sanders – San Augustine, TX; US Army, WWII, ETO, Bronze Star

Ryan K. Voss – Yigo, Guam; US Air Force Afghanistan, Lt. Col., HQ Air Control Command, KIA (E-11 crash)

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Intermission Stories (18)

Once we get back into WWII, we will mainly have Pacific Theater information here.  So, during this intermission time, I’ll take this opportunity to include another European Theater story.

X-Troop, George Lane is standing, back row center

X-Troop, George Lane is standing, back row center

 

Mr. X Meets the Desert Fox

George Lane aka: Lanyi Gyorgy

British Commando, No. 10 X Troop

In the spring of 1942, Lord Mountbatten created a commando unit made up of 10 troops.  No. 10 consisted of European born Jewish volunteers to be described as “unknown warriors,” false identities included.  To prove their loyalty, these men were required to perform extremely dangerous operations behind enemy lines.

Lanyi Gyorgy, Hungarian-born, was in England in 1939 and married Miriam Rothschild in 1943; it was through her connections that he was able to enlist in the army at all.  On 15-17 May, before D-Day, the newly named “George Lane” and “Roy Woolridge” were sent to Normandy Beach to search for mines.  They brought back an old corroded sample.  They were sent back to locate and photograph the anti-tank obstacle known as Element C.

George Lane

George Lane

Upon eluding capture on shore, a German patrol boat caught them in their dory and brought them back to the beach.  Lane’s interrogator insisted he was a saboteur and a member of the special services.  (An interpreter was used because Lane insisted he did not speak German).  Lane continued to state he had been on a troop ship that sunk in the Channel and he knew nothing.  He had his hands bound and a blindfold applied, but it was not done correctly – he could see out of the bottom.

George was led to a car and saw Roy sitting in the rear, he was put in the front.  During the drive, he pretended to sleep, head tilted back to view the route and memorize the French street signs.  At a large castle, an English-speaking German officer gave him food and tea and requested he was up to meet someone; he said, “…can I count on you to act like an officer and a gentleman?”  Lane agreed that he was indeed a gentleman.

He was brought into a vast ballroom and a slim, impressive general walked up to greet him.  Lane recognized him at once – the legendary “Desert Fox”, Field Marshal Erwin Rommel.  “So you are one of those gangster commandos?”  Lanes replied that he heard the commandos were the best in the world.  “So, you are a commando?  And a saboteur too, I suppose?”  Lane answered that he wouldn’t have been invited to the castle if that were true.

Field Marshall Erwin Rommel; The Desert Fox

Field Marshall Erwin Rommel; The Desert Fox

“You call this and invitation, do you?” Rommel snorted.  “Of course,” Lane said to the interpreter, “But also a privilege,” and then he smiled.  Rommel began to laugh and the discussion went on for about 20 minutes.  The general promised he would be treated fairly as a POW.  Lane and Woolrige both agreed that they were.

At the POW camp, Lane reported to the English senior officer, Col. E. Miller and admitted he was a commando in X-Troop.  A coded message was sent to England to confirm his identity along with the name of a road sign he remembered by the castle.  17 July, Rommel’s car was strafed by a Typhoon fighter-bomber, the driver killed and the general injured so badly he was forced to relinquish his command.  There is no proof that Lane’s info caused the attack, but he was awarded the Military Cross for his services.

Military Cross

Military Cross

He returned to the castle 40 years later and asserted that he always believed General Rommel had saved his life.

George Lane passed away on 19 March 2010 at the age of 95.  His story here was derived from one that appears in “True Stories of D-Day” by Henry Brook and The Telegraph.co.uk.  These are the only 2 photos of George Lane I was able to locate.

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Farewell Salutes – 

Fred Bickley, Jr. – Birmingham, AL; US Army, WWII

John Boyle – Farmingdale, NY; US Air Force, Korea

A Farewell Salute

A Farewell Salute

David R. Clare – Westfield, NJ & No.Palm Bch., FL; US Navy, WWII

Charles Garrison III – Long Beach, CA; US Army, Ranger

Anne Jarvie – Rotorua, NZ – RAF # 2145065 & RNZ Air Force # 73299, WWII

Sydney Johnson – Colorado Springs, CO; US Army, Korea, Military photographer

David Lake – Buhl, ID; US Army Air Corps, WWII, ETO, flight engineer, B-17’s

John Niceley – Front Royal, VA; US Navy, WWII

Richard Parrish, Jr. – No.Palm Beach; US Army Air Corps, Lt., B-17 pilot

Walter Shackel – Port Washington, NY; US Army, WWII, 86th Mountain Infantry

George Thomas – Toronto, Can; RCAF, WWII, Squadron 435-436, Burma/India Theater

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AXIS – spies and saboteurs

Nazi saboteur trial

Nazi saboteur trial

If the Allied powers had their spies lurking around behind the front lines, you can be sure the enemy was doing the same. Once again, you will find that I have certainly missed some of them and I am counting on you out there to fill in the blanks.

Takeo Yoshikawa

Takeo Yoshikawa

Takeo Yoshikawa began his career in intelligence in 1937 and became an expert on the U.S. Navy. He even received a thank you letter from Adolph Hitler after he informed the Germans of a 17 troop transport convoy that left Freetown and was en route to England; many of these ships were destroyed. On Hawaii, under the name Tadashi Morimura, he rented private planes and observed the U.S. installations on the islands. He would then transmit this data to Tokyo in PURPLE code; the U.S. did intercept these messages – but deemed them unimportant. When he heard the code, “East wind, rain,” he destroyed all evidence of his guilt since this meant Pearl Harbor would be attacked. August 1942, he returned to Japan. When he opened a business in 1955, he found the Japanese people blamed him for the war with the U.S. and his wife needed to support him the remainder of his life.

Velvalee Dickinson

Velvalee Dickinson

Velvalee Dickinson, from Sacramento, Calif., became associated with many Japanese organizations through her husbands brokerage business and remained sympathetic. Velvalee opened a doll shop and sent coded messages through a complex system that included Argentina and New York. She was eventually caught and tried in January 1944, sentenced to ten years. She was released in 1951 and somehow disappeared in 1954.

dickinson_store

No. 62 Squadron, Feb. 1941

No. 62 Squadron, Feb. 1941

Patrick Heenan was a captain in the British Indian Army that spied for Japan during the Malayan Campaign. He was stationed at Alor Star in Kedah, Malaya in June 1941 where most of the RAF, Royal Australian Air Force and Royal New Zealand Air Force squadrons were based. When Japanese forces invaded on 8 December, their air raids were assisted by Heenan as he used a hidden radio and more codetransmitter. His treason cost No. 62 Squadron personnel and aircraft. He was arrested 10 December, court martialed and jailed in January 1942 in Singapore. When the enemy attacked that city, Heenan was shot in the back of his head and dumped in Keppel Harbour by his wardens.

The Black Dragons were a paramilitary group of Japan. Their agents operated during the Russo-Japanese war and then continued into WWII. They initially were directed to act against the Soviets, but were later expanded throughout Turkey, northern Africa, S.E. Asia and the U.S. Two American organizations influenced by the Dragons were the “Brotherhood of Liberty for the Black People of America” and “Nation of Islam.” On 27 March 1942, the FBI arrested a number of lack Dragons in San Joaquin, California.

FBI mug shots, March 1944, six of 33 in Duquesne spy ring

FBI mug shots, March 1944, six of 33 in Duquesne spy ring

The German U-boats that actually touched North American soil were setting agents on shore. The Duquesne spy ring is the largest espionage case in the U.S. to end up in convictions. The agents were sent to various sites to extract information and commit sabotage. One spy opened a restaurant, one worked at an airline and the others were at radio stations and messenger boys. The ring leader was Fritz Joubert Duquesne, a South African Boer who had worked for Germany in both wars. But, the U.S. had a double-agent within the group and on 29 June 1941, all 33 agents were arrested and sentenced to a total of 300 years in prison.

George Dasch spy ring, tean 1

George Dasch spy ring, tean 1

Operation Patorius was divided into 2 teams; one led by George John Dasch (aka – George Davis, a former resident of the U.S.) and landed 12 June 1942 off of U-boat 202 at East Hampton, Long Island. Their mission: to destroy power plants at Niagara Falls and 3 ALCOA factories. The second team landed at Ponte Vedra Beach, SE of Jacksonville, Florida. Their mission: to lay mines at the Pennsylvania Railroad at Newark, NJ and the water supply lines at St. Louis, Cincinnati and NYC. George Dasch turned himself into the FBI and the others were soon arrested due to his confession. Six of the agents were executed; 8 August, Dasch received a 30 year term, but was released and deported back to Germany in 1948. He did not receive a good welcome home and moved to Switzerland where he wrote the book, Eight Spies Against America.

Kerling, Team 2

Kerling, Team 2

Operation Elster landed at Hancock, Maine 30 November 1944 aboard U-boat 1230. Their mission: to learn what they could about the Manhattan Project and sabotage it, if possible. The FBI caught them in New York; one spent 10 years in prison and the other was released in 1960, operated a business in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania and later retired to Florida.

14 May 1942, Marius Langbein landed near St. Martins, New Brunswick, Canada of U-boat 217 for Operation Grete (named for his wife). He never carried out his orders, but rather lived off of the funds given to him by the Germans and then surrendered in December 1944. Being that he never committed a crime – he was found not guilty.

Werner von Janowski

Werner von Janowski

U-518, in November 1942 sank two iron ore freighters and damaged another in Conception Bay, Newfoundland before setting agent, Werner von Janowski, ashore near New Carlisle, Quebec. Upon seeing the man act suspicious as he left a hotel, Earle Annett, followed the spy and 3 hours later, notified a constable. The officer continued the tail, struck up a conversation with the suspect and Janowski confessed his intentions.

German U-boat, U-537

German U-boat, U-537

22 October 1943, Professor Kurt Sommermeyer and his team debarked U-537 at Martin Bay, Labrador to set up an automatic weather station, “Weather Station Kurt” or as the enemy knew it – “Wetter-Funkgerät Land – 26.”

When U-867 attempted to replace the batteries 3 months later, it was sunk. Left undisturbed, it was discovered in the 1980’s and is now at the Canadian War Museum.

Click on photos to enlarge

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Farewell Salutes –

William Henry Kempner – Newark, DE; U.S. Navy submariner, Korean War

Robert Earl Boggs – Columbus, OH; Jupiter, FL; U.S. Navy Commander, retired carrier aviator

Gary Lee Tyler – Roxbury, NY & Palm Beach Gardens, FL; U.S. Army Fourth Army Band, Korea

Edward J.W. Stuart – Alton, ILL. & Lake Worth, FL; U.S. Navy in Korea, ships USS Palau-CVE722; USS Midway-CVB-41 and USS J.C. Owens-DD7756

Eve Metz – Worchester, Mass & Delray Beach, FL; U.S. Army, Second Lieutenant, nurse during WWII

John Reeves Oakman – Boca Raton, FL; U.S. Army WWII

Russell Link – Lake Worth, FL;USMC sergeant

Roosevelt Garner, Jr. – W. Palm Beach, FL; U.S. Navy WWII Pacific, electrician’s mate

Willoughby Ted Quin – Lake Worth, FL; U.S. Army WWII w/ a Silver Star; reenlisted U.S. Air Force for Korea and Vietnam

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Current News –

Born on the Fourth of July – WWII Veteran U.S. Navy, Frank Eaton, born on 4 July in Northville, Mich., received a plaque honoring his military service on his 90th birthday from the city of West Palm Beach, Florida.

Funny or Scary? – In Tampa, Fla., A homeless woman, Suzanne Jensen, not only sneaked into MacDill Air Force Base, by turning a garbage can upside down and scaling the fence, once and staying for days at a time, but four times!! She also stole a military I.D.

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Personal Note –

Next week, gpcox is due for jury duty. Depending on that schedule, next week’s posts might be delayed. I always attempt to respond to each comment, but that also might be affected. I’ll do my best.

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ALLIED spies & saboteurs

Allen Dulles - OSS Intelligence I.D.

Allen Dulles – OSS Intelligence I.D.

There is no way for me to include all the information for every spy and/or saboteur of WWII for two reasons – there were far too many and because they did their job and stayed top-secret. An example of this would be the French Resistance and the BCRA, made up of British, French and Cajun-American volunteers. But some, due to the fact that they became famous or their work finally de-classified, I have included here as a matter of interest.

"High Pockets"

“High Pockets”

Claire Phillips, aka Dorothy Clara Fuentes, aka Claire Fuentes, aka Madame Tsubaki was also known as “High Pockets” and the “American Mata Hari.” She operated a nightclub in Manila and used he cunning ways to extract data from the Japanese officers that frequented her establishment. The agent then sent her intel directly to Gen. MacArthur or the U.S. Navy. Claire managed to deliver food and other necessary items to Allied POWs and had an underground of Filipino guerrilla to assist her. Mrs. Fuentes was eventually caught, put on trial and sentenced to die, but this verdict was never carried out. She was liberated on 10 February 1945 and returned to the U.S. The movie, I Was an American Spy was based on her life.

Richard Sakakida was inadvertently included in Gen. Yamashita’s army when he moved east and was assigned to Japanese intelligence on Luzon. He gained the trust of the Imperial Army in Manila and gave what data he discovered to the Filipino ROTC Group of guerrillas until they were captured. Sakakida then began forging release papers to get some of the members out of prison. He was never suspected, but later slipped away from his post and hid out in northern Luzon for months. Although he had received medals for his work from the government, his actual loyalty was brought into question in later years.

Arthur Komori

Arthur Komori

Army Chief Warrant Officer, Arthur Komori, was an agent as part of the Counter Intelligence Corps. He enlisted with Richard Sakakida in Hawaii at the start of the war. He allowed himself to be captured and placed in a Japanese interment camp in the Philippines until he was ordered to escape by Gen. Wainwright 16 April 1942.

Julia Child - OSS quarters in Kandy, Ceylon

Julia Child – OSS quarters in Kandy, Ceylon

Julia McWilliams Child would gain fame as a chef and t.v. personality, but she performed far different duties during WWII. When the war began, she wanted to join the WACS or Waves, but was rejected due to her height of 6’2″. Instead, Julia became part of the OSS (forerunner of the CIA) and as one of her projects, she helped to develop a shark repellent for downed pilots and crews. Later on, she supervised an OSS facility in China where she dealt with top-secret documents and in Ceylon. Her life as a WWII agent was documented in the book, A Covert Affair: Julia Child and Paul Child in the OSS.

Marlene Dietrich, better known for her work as an actress, was German born. She joined the OSS where she entertained the troops and then secretly broadcast propaganda to the weary enemy soldiers. She received the Medal of Freedom for her operations.

Elizabeth McIntosh - on the job

Elizabeth McIntosh – on the job

Elizabeth McIntosh was a war correspondent that began working with the OSS directly after Pear Harbor. While stationed in India, she intercepted and rewrote Japanese postcards being sent home. She also found an Imperial Order that discussed surrender terms and many other documents.

The OSS did most of its work in Europe and in Detachment 101 of the Burma-India-China Theater, where they trained Chinese soldiers to fight the Japanese and supplied target information to Gen. Chennault, the creator of the famous ‘Flying Tigers’ besides their regular duties. Both MacArthur and Nimitz refused their service and used their own intelligence units, but much of the OSS data was relayed to them via Washington. Allen Dulles was station chief of the OSS (his I.D. card is pictured at the top of the post) and looked and dressed like a middle-aged college professor. A lawyer by trade, he worked for the State Department during WWI. He collected intelligence with a complex espionage network. Dulles recruited Mary Bancroft, daughter to the publisher of “The Wall Street Journal” to analyze German newspapers, but she quickly became an agent in the cloak-and-dagger fashion.

Hans Bernd Gisevius, code name “Dr. Bernhard,” was an agent of the Alwehr, the German secret service (SS). In 1939, he became part of Schwarze Kapelle (the Black Orchestra), the group formed to kill Hitler. He contacted Dulles in 1943 and Mary Bancroft became his contact.

One group, barely spoken of, was the SOA (or Z Special Unit, as it is known today), the Special Operations of Australia. Many were barely 18 years old when they were recruited and trained to infiltrate the Japanese lines. They were formed by a group of British covert executives operating in Malaya in mid-1943; even the Australian Army was unaware of this unit’s existence. Over the 3 remaining years of the war, over 1,000 men were taught parachuting, explosives and espionage on Fraser Island. After their training, most were dropped on Borneo and other islands in S.E. Asia; over 100 were killed in combat. They even carried the infamous cyanide tablets. They were honor-bound by the Secrecy Act for 30 years to never speak of their activities; even as the other WWII soldiers were celebrated on ANZAC Day. Twenty-one remaining SOA men held their first reunion in 2010 on the island where they were trained.

Wing Commander Forest "Tommy" Yeo-Thomas

Wing Commander Forest “Tommy” Yeo-Thomas

The British spy who went by the code names, “Seahorse” and “Shelley” was the actual agent that inspired Ian Fleming to write his 007 series of books. Wing Commander Forest Frederick “Tommy” Yeo-Thomas was known to the German Gestapo as “The White Rabbit” and operated out of Vichy, France. An excellent accounting of his story is at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F._F._E._Yeo-Thomas

The most unsuspecting man (in my opinion) to become a spy – was already dead. Early 1943, Allied forces, planning their invasion, needed to convince the enemy that their landing site was somewhere else. “Operation Mincemeat” originally came from Ian Fleming. A Welsh laborer, already deceased after ingesting rat poison, had his pockets filled with false papers and left where the Germans could find him. The operation proved very successful.

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Farewell Salutes –

Paul Adams – Nebraska & Greenville, S.C.; U.S. Army WWII, Tuskegee Airman, 332nd Fighter Group

Pauline V. Simsovic – Dayton, OH & W. Palm Bch., FL; First Lieutenant WACS, WWII London

Marvin J. Newberg – Bronx, NY & Boca Raton, FL; First Lieutenant U.S. Army Air Force, B-25 navigator in India

Frank Richard Stranahan – Toledo, OH & W. Palm Bch., FL; U.S. Army Air Force, pilot, WWII

Richard Neuber – Port St. Lucie, FL.;U.S. Navy, WWII

Walter Stankard, Jr. – Waltham, MA & Boynton Bch., FL; U.S. Navy, USS Enoree, Korean War

Army Spc. John L. Burgess of Sutton Bay, Michigan, missing since his helicopter was shot down in 1970, Vietnam, was finally brought home for burial. He was laid to rest at Arlington National Cemetery in a single casket along with the partial remains of two members of his crew.

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Please stop back and see the article I wrote for Judy over at http://greatestgenerationlessons.wordpress.com. Let us know what you think of it. I will later re-blog the guest post for your convenience. Thank you.