Blog Archives

A Brief Background for War

Teddy Roosevelt

For centuries Asian products were desired, but one of the most profitable trade routes operated from India to China, introducing opium into that country.  This market accounted for 20% of the British Empire’s revenue and was the basis of the Roosevelt family wealth.

Teddy Roosevelt, an aristocrat, was taught thru his youth and at Harvard, of Aryan supremacy in government and intellect.  Columbia University professor John Burgess impressed him with white American world domination.  With this ideology, he followed the European nations in absorbing colonies.  He pushed for control of the Philippines where the American behavior was deplorable, but overlooked.

The U.S. Minister to Japan, DeLong, encouraged “General” Charles LeGendre to go to Japan and instruct them on invasion tactics and instigate his “Monroe Doctrine” for Asia. (Three decades later it would be known as the Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere of WWII).  When Japan invaded Manchuria, Roosevelt said, “I was thoroughly pleased with the Japanese victory for Japan is playing our game.”  Although U.S. advisors assured Korea that America was their “Elder Brother,” in 1905 Roosevelt closed the embassy and said, “I should like to see Japan have Korea.”  The Nobel prize committee did not know of his secret meetings with Japan during the Russo-Japanese War and gave him the Peace prize anyway.

Roosevelt had not only opened the door for Japan to conquer neighboring nations, he gave them the ideal instructor and plans to do it with.  For detailed information see: The Imperial Cruise, by James Bradley.

https://www.thriftbooks.com/browse/?b.search=the%20imperial%20cruise#b.s=mostPopular-desc&b.p=1&b.pp=30&b.oos&b.tile

“The Imperial Cruise” by: James Bradley

If Congress discovered he had also sent pilots to Britain, Roosevelt said, “I will be impeached.”

Being that Japan found it necessary to import food, fuel and American plane parts, here was the edge that FDR needed to coax the U.S. public into war.  When Germany failed to declare war, he froze Japan’s assets on July 26, 1941.   Relations between Japan and the ABCD countries had basically reached a point of no return.  The New York Times newspaper called this action, “…the most drastic blow short of war.”

The ABCD powers (American, British, Chinese & Dutch) followed suit and this became a choke chain around Japan’s neck which FDR jerked as he saw fit until Pearl Harbor exploded into a scene of destruction.  This action not only got the U.S. into the war, but FDR made certain that the major effort would be to assist his friend Winston Churchill – not the Pacific.

FDR campaigning in Warms Springs, GA, 4 April 1939

For a more detailed look into the world that led into WWII, I have a 3-part ‘East/West series’ that starts here…

https://pacificparatrooper.wordpress.com/2014/07/10/east-and-west-1/

FDR cabled Philippine President, Manuel Quezon, “I can assure you that every vessel available is  bearing the strength that will eventually crush the enemy… I give to the people of the Philippines my solemn pledge that their freedom will be retained… The entire resources in men and materials of the U.S. stand behind that pledge.”

Gen. George Marshall, FDR’s Army Chief of Staff, radioed MacArthur:  ‘A stream of 4-engine bombers, previously delayed by foul weather, is enroute…Another stream of similar bombers started today from Hawaii…”

################################################################################################################

Political Humor –

################################################################################################################

Farewell Salutes – 

Patricia Adams – Fitchburg, MA; Civilian, WWII, Civil Corps, plane spotter

Joseph Bange – Dayton, OH; US Army, WWII, ETO, Signal Corps

Robert Benden (101) – Brooklyn, NY; US Army, WWII, ETO, x-ray technician

Michael Glockler Sr. – Chicago, IL; US Army, Vietnam, Co. B/2/505/82nd Airborne Division, Bronze Star

Wilton Jackson (100) – Little River, TX; US Army Air Corps, WWII, ETO, Captain, 17th Bomb Group

Emil J. Kapaun – Pilsen, KS; US Army, Korea, Chaplain, 3/8/1st Cavalry Division, POW, Medal of Honor, KIA (Chinese Camp 5)

Frank Lopez – East Lost Angeles, CA; US Navy, WWII, PTO, aircraft maintenance

Kenneth “Rock” Merritt – Warner, OK; US Army Air Corps, WWII, ETO, Sgt. Major, 82nd Airborne Division / Korea & Vietnam, Silver Star, (Ret. 35 y.)

Robert Renner – Wautoma, WI; US Army Air Corps, Japanese Occupation / US Army, Korea, 187th RCT

John Garvis Smith – Winston-Salem, NC; US Navy, WWII, USS Southerland

########################################################################################################################################################################################################################################################################

August 1943 (1)

IJN Amagiri & PT-109; US Navy painting

IJN Amagiri & PT-109; US Navy painting

1 August – The Japanese destroyer, Amagiri rammed the US Naval fast patrol boat, PT-109, and 2 seaman were killed.  All members, including John F. Kennedy, were reported as missing.  After 3 days, the US Navy rescued the survivers after receiving word from friendly neighbors of their location on a near-by island.

The Japanese, as an advancement ploy of their Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, announced that Burma was an independent nation.  The puppet-leader, Dr. Ba Maw, immediately declared war on the Allies.

5-7 August – The US 43rd Division made their way to conquer the vital Japanese base at Munda in the Solomon Islands.  The engineers began their work immediately to repair and enlarge the airfield to be used as a forward base for the Solomon Campaign.  An enemy supply convoy headed for Kolombangara came in contact with 6 US destroyers in the Vela Gulf.  With no US losses, the Japanese suffered 1210 KIA and 3 destroyers sunk.

USMC-II-II (640x284)

 11 August –  as the 43d Division widened its cleanup efforts around the airfield, a patrol confirmed reports of Japanese activity on Kolombangara. The following day, a company-sized unit moved by landing craft to the island. As the soldiers disembarked, a withering fire from the jungle felled about half of the force and forced its withdrawal. Two days later, while an artillery barrage from 155mm guns hastily-emplaced at Munda paved the way, two battalions of the 169th made an unopposed dawn landing on the shore opposite the site of the ill-fated assault of the 12th. As the infantrymen moved inland, crossing the island from east to west, resistance stiffened. An estimated 400 Japanese manned a strong line of hastily-built fortifications blocking the advance.

Kolombangara Island

Kolombangara Island

 16 August – two battalions of the 172d Regiment went to Baanga to reinforce the attack. As more artillery units (including the 155mm gun batteries of the 9th Marine Defense Battalion) moved into position at Munda and on the offshore islands, and systematically knocked out every known enemy gun emplacement, resistance dwindled. Increased barge traffic on the night of 19 August indicated that the Japanese were withdrawing. The following day, the southern part of the island was quickly occupied, and two battalions then moved north along opposite coastlines. Only scattered stragglers were encountered; the enemy had abandoned Baanga. The 43d Division lost 52 men killed and 110 wounded in the week-long battle.

7-15 August – There was so much fighting between the Nationalist and Communist troops in China that the Japanese took advantage of the situation and launched an offensive.  The Nationalist LI Corps was nearly destroyed.

Gen. Claude Auchinleck, Commander-in-Chief India, proposed no further British offensives in Burma, but rather concentrate on air supplies to China.

13-24 August – Upon Churchill’s arrival to the States, he and FDR had a private meeting.  The Prime Minister wished to urge the president to make the next step in Europe, the Balkans and Norway.  He was unaware that the influential Secretary of War, Henry Stimson already urged FDR to hold to his promise to Stalin and invade France, thereby creating a “Second Front.”

Chateau Frontenac

Chateau Frontenac

The military conference “Quadrant” at the Château Frontenac overlooking the St. Lawrence River in Quebec, the usual heated debates transpired.  In regards to the CBI, VAdm. Louis Mountbatten was made head of the South East Asia Command (SEAC) which covered Burma, Malaya, Sumatra, Thailand and Indochina.  The objectives for the SEAC: draw Japan out of the Pacific and assist China.  There were no strategic decisions made.  For the SW Pacific areas, any future ideas would depend heavily on the progress in New Guinea and MacArthur was notified of this, in so uncertain terms, by Gen. Marshall.

Click on images to enlarge.

##################################################################

Current News –

Joint efforts to locate WWII airmen lost in Malaysia…

########################################################################################################

Military Island Humor – 

where-ever-i-roam-576x354

img_1549 (640x461)

 

########################################################################################################

Farewell Salutes – 

Victor Bean Sr. – Juneau, AK; US Army, Vietnam

Howard Coble – Greensboro, NC; US Coast Guard (Ret. 29 years), US Congressmane9dd0162494da2d1aba873c634610321

Melvin Garten – Oswego, OR; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, 11th Airborne Div.

Nicola Goddard – CAN, brn: New Guinea; RC Army, Afghanistan, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery, Capt.; first Canadian woman killed in combat

Barbara Hawkins – Long Beach, CA; US Navy Waves

Robert Meacham – Traverse City, MI; US Air Force (Ret. 20 years), Lt.Colonel

Alfree Nabob – Middletown, DE; US Army, WWII, ETO, 1st Infantry Div., Purple Heart

Albert Palko – Cleveland, OH; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, Purple Heart & Korea

Tibor Rubin – Garden Grove, CA; US Army, Korea, Medal of Honor

Frank Surridge – Lower Hutt, NZ; RNZ Navy # 3065, WWII

######################################################################################

Lend-Lease Memorial – Fairbanks, Alaska

ANOTHER WONDERFUL POST FROM DEANO!

Aces Flying High

Industrial might lead to victory in WW2 Industrial might lead to victory in WW2

During the early years of World War Two in Europe, both Great Britain and Russia needed a vast amount of military equipment to combat Germany and other Allied nations needed help against Japan. These countries lost a lot of equipment in the early Axis onslaught and their need for replacements far surpassed their own production capability. Luckily the industrial might of the United States of America had the solution to this problem.

The Lend-Lease program proposed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in early 1941 (following requests from British Prime Minister Winston Churchill “Give us the tools and we will finish the job“) was enacted by the United States Congress on March 11th, 1941 to provide financial and military equipment aid to her allies (formally known as An Act to Further Promote the Defense of the United States). This was

View original post 992 more words

21-31 December 1941

Non-military objectives of the Philippines. (top) Pasay and (bottom) Cavite

Non-military objectives of the Philippines. (top) Pasay and (bottom) Cavite

 

21-30 December, the 11th Indian Division retreated into southern Malaya and the Japanese were freed to push back the Australian troops.  The following link comes with a WARNING!  I located a video of Indian action in the war but there is Graphic Violence____HERE!

 

The big guns of Corregidor respond.

The big guns of Corregidor respond.

23 December, the American and Filipino units on Luzon, Philippines, began moving into the Bataan Peninsula.  MacArthur was commanding from Corregidor and declared Manila an ‘open-city.’  The next day, 7,000 Japanese troops landed at Lamon Bay on the island and entrap the Allied soldiers on the peninsula.

24 December, after 2 weeks of steady bombardment and the landing of Japanese troops, Wake Island succumbed and US forces surrendered.  /  The vital British naval and air base at Rangoon, Burma received a major air bombardment.

 

24-31 December, along 400 miles of Borneo’s coast, the Japanese made amphibious landings at Kuching.  By the end of the year, the British troops were in general retreat throughout the Dutch East Indies as German-trained Japanese paratroopers were dropped on Sumatra.  On the 25th, Hong Kong officially surrendered.  /  And, on the 31st, Admiral Nimitz officially took command of the US Pacific Fleet.

PM John Curtin

PM John Curtin

Churchill and FDR had their first meeting, during which a message arrived from V.G. Bowden, Australia’s representative in Singapore, saying that the deterioration in the “defense of Malaya was assuming landslide proportions.”  Churchill denied the truth of the message despite South Africa’s Prime Minister Smuts argument, “that unless Japanese moves are countered by a very large scale action, they [Japan] may overrun the Pacific.”

Australia’s PM, John Curtin, challenged Churchill and his strategies, this dispute brought public the conflicts between the two men.  Churchill remained defiant by saying:  “…countries of the Far East simply have to accept a greater degree of threat…”  As Australia’s forces were scattered around the globe, Japan continued to sweep south and the plans for “Germany First” only allowed 2 inferior naval fleets to cover the Indian Ocean and the vast Pacific.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

On 26 December, at the “Arcadia” meeting, FDR discussed the possibility of a unified command in the Far East. (Actually an idea of Gen.Marshall’s, relayed by the pres.).  Churchill violently disagreed  until he discovered that they wanted General Archibald Wavell as the commander.  The British Chiefs of Staff felt it was somehow a “a Roosevelt trick,” the Far East was crumbling and Wavell would be blamed.  They answered, “Let some American take the post.”  Churchill did not want to surrender responsibility for Singapore to the US, “Think what the Australians would make of that!”  FDR was insulted – but a unified command was formed at the meeting.

Adm. Nimitz replaces Adm. Kimmell (left) and Knox visits Nimitz in Hawaii.

Adm. Nimitz replaces Adm. Kimmell (left) and Knox visits Nimitz in Hawaii.

While complaining about the humidity during his 6 days in Palm Springs, Florida, Churchill displayed “a wild and childish temper” at the Australians and their concerns over their own defense.  Although he considered Singapore to be a total loss, the Prime Minister told the Australians that there was strength at the ‘Fortress’ and the men would “hold out to the last.”  He then diverted his attention to Burma.  New Zealand on the other hand continued to receive his praise for their loyalty.

The proud Roosevelt's Christmas card for 1941.

The proud Roosevelt’s Christmas card for 1941.

Click on images for a larger view.

Most photos are from “The Veterans of Foreign Wars Pictorial History of the Second World War” vol. 2; the last two photos are from John Tolands, “Infamy and the Aftermath.”

####################################################################################################

Humor –  political cartoons of the times____

20 David Low cartoon

41-A

 

 

 

####################################################################################################

Farewell Salutes – 

Howard Abisch – Tamarac, FL; US Army, WWII, 44th Infantry Division, ETO

passing of the colors

passing of the colors

Lawrence Bradley – Wowan, AUS.; RAAF # 25047, WWII

Gordon Cates – Vancouver, CAN.; RC Army, WWII

Charles Bandelier – New Haven, IN; USMC, WWII

Vito Ernest – New Haven, NY; US Army, WWII, ETO

Anthony Hobbs – Hamilton, NZ; RNZ Navy # 2027, WWII, Chief Petty Officer

Robert Pavlik – Boca Raton, FL; US Army, Korea

Harvey Stewart – Huntsville, AL; US Army, Korea & Vietnam, Chaplain, Colonel, (Ret. 31 years)

Patricia Wentz – born: Edinburgh, SCOT, McLean, VA; British Military SOE (cryptographer for European resistance), ETO

#####################################################################################################

 

10-12 December 1941

Indian troops

Indian troops

 

Basically the Japanese Blitzkrieg continued on for approximately another six months, but from here on out the Pacific War data will be titled by month and year.  I hope my efforts help to make the sequence of events for this historic era more clear.  Please remember the comment section is always looking for the stories you know.  No one should ever be forgotten!

FDR's fireside chats

FDR’s fireside chats

10 December – Roosevelt gave his ‘fireside chat’ on the radio to unite the citizens of the US against the Japanese, (despite the fact that every military enlistment post being full of volunteers).  But, even though the majority appeared to hold a favorable acceptance of avenging Pearl Harbor, there were sounds of discontent in Congress as to the reason America was caught by surprise.  The unity, instantly brought on by the attack in Hawaii, was at this point halted by the question – WHY?

No.2 Company, Bombay Sappers  (Engineers)

No.2 Company, Bombay Sappers (Engineers)

One Representative quoted the news correspondent, Leland Stowe in Chungking, “…it seems incomprehensible here how the Japs were able to get to the Army’s big airfields in Oahu and without large numbers of American fighters getting into the air promptly… On Sunday evening [Chungking time], at least one hour before the Japanese blitz on Hawaii, an official of the US gunboat “Tulitz” [Tutuila], warned your correspondent: It is going to happen tonight.'”

11 December – Adolph Hitler solved a major problem for President Roosevelt by declaring war on the United States.  If the president had been forced to act first, he would have risked losing support of a large portion of the country.

Charles Lindbergh

Charles Lindbergh

Charles Lindbergh’s entry into his diary for 11 December read: “Now all that I feared would happen has happened.  We are at war all over the world and we are unprepared for it from either a spiritual or a material standpoint.  And then what?  We haven’t even a clear idea of what we are fighting to attain.”

004

12 December – the British 18th Division and four squadrons of fighters were diverted to Bombay to strengthen the Indian divisions.  No matter how serious the setbacks became in the Far East, Churchill will remain steadfast in his belief that it did not deserve a fleet.  It was Britain’s third matter of priority at the onset and would remain so.

Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto

Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto

A quote from Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet of Japan told a friend, “…after more than 4 exhausting years of operations in China, we are now considering simultaneous operations against the US, Britain and China, and then operations against Russia as well.  It is the height of folly.”

#####################################################################################################

Humor –  courtesy of our fellow blogger Chris, found HERE! 

 

"Alright sailor!  Let's get that hat squared away!"

“Alright sailor! Let’s get that hat squared away!”

Navy training...

Navy training…

 

#####################################################################################################

Farewell Salutes – 

Jewell Coffindaffer – Charleston, WV; US Navy, WWII, SeaBees (grandson, MSgt. Vance is currently in Afghanistan)

Andrew Cunningham – W. Australia; RA Navy, HMAS Perth, Karangi, Nizam, Napier, Nepal & 4th WSLS Category (14 years)

Charles Dyer – Jupiter, FL; US Air Force, Korea

Billy Gourley – Shreveport, LA; US Army, Korea, Signal CorpsTaps

Michael Heitzman – Louisville, KY; US Air Force (Ret. 20 years)

Kenneth Raines – New Zealand; RNZ Navy # 1459, WWII

Jadwiga Szyrynski – Ottawa, CAN; Polish Army, nurse, WWII

Frank Torre – Brooklyn, NY & Jupiter FL; US Army, Korea, (MLB player)

Charles Weber – Bridgeville, PA; US Army, Korea & Vietnam, (Ret. 21 years)

######################################################################################################

East and West (3)

FDR & Cordell Hull, 1940

FDR & Cordell Hull, 1940

If Manchuria was controlled, the Japanese felt they would have the advantage over Russia.  Since the Chiang Nationalist government did wish to spend the money or the energy to combat Japan – but – still have communism squelched in the country, Manchuria was given up.

When the US started economic sanctions in 1939, Japan required new territories to supply their resources.  They issued a request to the French  for permission to enter Indo-China.  In September 1940, the Vichy government agreed.  The southeast portion of Asia was occupied, without incident, by the Japanese on 27-29 July 1941.

Vichy government, 1939

Vichy government, 1939

The US was incensed and proceeded to convince other countries to freeze Japan’s assets; the ABCD, (American, British, Canada, Dutch), power’s economic blockade began.  By mid-1941, relations between Japan and the ABCD countries had basically reached a point of no return.  The New York Times newspaper called this action, “…the most drastic blow short of war.”

The Japanese newspaper's transport aircraft "Asagumo", a MC-20-I, 1940's

The Japanese newspaper’s transport aircraft “Asagumo”, a MC-20-I, 1940’s

FDR knew he had stretched the Lend Lease Program far beyond what was even known to Congress, and he was becoming nervous with the secrecy.  When the embargo was extended, the Tokyo newspaper, A Saki Shimbun (Morning Sun Newspaper), predicted: “It seems inevitable that a collision should occur between Japan, determined to establish a sphere of influence in East Asia including the southwest Pacific, and the US which is determined to meddle in the affairs on the other side of a vast ocean by every means short of war.”

Chiang Kai-shek, 1940

Chiang Kai-shek, 1940

Making the world situation much worse, FDR did not give the Australians the defense commitment it needed.  Yet, he did promise Chiang Kai-shek 50 pursuit planes and $100 million in financial assistance. (This was despite Madame Chiang’s insistence that the money was being siphoned by the government officials and military leaders.)  With all of Washington’s plans in play by the spring of 1941, Admiral Stark told Admiral Kimmel: “The question of our entry into the war now seems to be when, not whether.”  In Japan – Operation Z was a sure plan.

Prime Minister Konoye, 1939

Prime Minister Konoye, 1939

By this time, Cordell Hull was following the specific instructions of FDR.  Konoye in Tokyo agreed to abnegate the Tripartite Pact in his quest for peace, but Washington adamantly insisted there was “no meeting of the minds.”  Konoye, despite an attempt on his life, sent a last desperate plea to meet and talk with Roosevelt before his 15 October deadline — there was no response from D.C. and he was forced to resign as Prime Minister.

By Novemeber 1941, the US Joint Chiefs of Staff were investigating which Japanese cities were strategically most important to bomb.

 

Click on images to enlarge.

###########################################################################################

Current news – 

The Olympian who had his obituary written 70 years ago!

001 (800x585)

Please click on image to read the amazing story recently in “The Week” magazine.

###########################################################################################

Farewell Salutes – 

James Bogan – Ocala, FL; US Navy, Korea

Lawrence Brown – Morton, IL; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, C-47 engineer

Lloyd Doody – Windsor, MR; US Army (Ret. 33 years), Vietnamroseglitterdivider_thumb

Philippe Grignon – Keswick, CAN; RC Air Force, WWII, Flight Lt.

Thomas Kenny – Cradell, NJ; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, 187th RCT, 11th A/B

Carl “Dal” Maas – Davenport, IA; US Marine Corps, WWII, PTO, 6th Marines

Alexander Morton – Detroit, MI & Palm Bch, FL; US Air Force, Vietnam

Kenneth Reynolds – Stuart, FL; US Navy, WWII, ETO, Naval Combat Demolition Team, 2 Bronze Stars

Christopher Scarrott – Christchurch, NZ; RNZ Army # 768057

Stanley Walega – Manchester, NH; US Army, Korea

###########################################################################################

<span>%d</span> bloggers like this: