Blog Archives

Home Front – Wartime Recipes (3)

From: The 1940’s Experiment .

We discussed rationing and we’ve discussed just how well our parents and grandparents ate – despite the rationing and time of war when all the “good” stuff was going overseas to the troops!  So …. as promised, here are some more of the wonderful recipes from the 1940’s.

Please thank Carolyn on her website for putting these delicious meals on-line!

Recipe 61: Chocolate biscuits & chocolate spread

Recipe 62: Curried potatoes 

Recipe 63: Vegetable pasties

Recipe 64: Wheatmeal pastry

Recipe 65: Homemade croutons

Recipe 66: Quick vegetable soup

Recipe 67: Fruit Shortcake

Recipe 68: Cheese potatoes

Recipe 69: Lentil sausages

Recipe 70: Root vegetable soup

Recipe 71: Sausage rolls

Recipe 72: Eggless ginger cake

Bubble n’ squeak #78

Recipe 73: Mock duck

Recipe 74: Cheese sauce

Recipe 75: Duke pudding

Recipe 76: Potato scones

Recipe 77: Cheese, tomato and potato loaf/pie

Recipe 78: Bubble and squeak

Recipe 79: Belted leeks

Recipe 80: Lord Woolton Pie- Version 2

Recipe 81: Beef and prune hotpot

Recipe 82: Prune flan

Recipe 83: Butter making him-front style

Recipe 84: Mock apricot flan

Recipe 85: Corned beef with cabbage

Recipe 86: Oatmeal pastry

Apple brown Betty # 90

Recipe 87: Gingerbread men

Recipe 88: Carolyn’s mushroom gravy

Recipe 89: Jam sauce

Recipe 90: Brown Betty

Recipe 91: Middleton medley

Recipe 92: Rolled oat macaroons

Recipe 93: Anzac biscuits

Recipe 94: Beef or whalemeat hamburgers

Recipe 95: Lentil soup

Recipe 96: Welsh claypot loaves

Recipe 97: Chocolate oat cakes

Recipe 98: Wartime berry shortbread

Recipe 99: Oatmeal soup

Recipe 100: Mock marzipan

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Home Front Humor –

“I understand you’ve been riveting in your name and address.”

“Father, would not the best way to conduct the war be to let the editors of the newspaper take charge of it?”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Farewell Salutes – 

John Albert – So. Greensburg, PA; US Navy, WWII, air patrol

Phillip Baker – San Marcos, TX; US Army Pvt., 101st Airborne Division

The Old Guard

George Carter – Crete, IL; US Navy, WWII & Korea, SeaBee

George Ebersohl – Madison, WI; US Army, WWII, ETO, medic

Hugh Ferris – Muncie, IN; US Army, WWII, ETO, 99th Infantry

Ambrose Lopez – CO; US Navy, WWII, PTO, USS Wake Island

Robert Parnell – Hampshire, ENG; British Army, WWII, ETO, 6th Airborne Division

James Swafford – Glencoe, AL; US Army, WWII, Purple Heart

Floyd Totten – Umatilla, FL; US Army, Korea, Co. B/187th RCT

Louis Ventura – Turlock, CA; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, 188th/11th Airborne Division

 

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RAF in the Pacific War

British Flight Training School No. 1, Terrell, TX

After the fall of the Dutch East Indies, the British RAF contributed six squadrons to the Pacific Air War.

March 1941 allowed for the training of Allied pilots on U.S. soil and the formation of British Flying Training Schools.  These unique establishments were owned by American operators, staffed with civilian instructors, but supervised by British flight officers. Each school, and there were seven located throughout the southern and southwestern United States, utilized RAF’s own training syllabus.

The aircraft were supplied by the U.S. Army Air Corps.  Campuses were located in Terrell, Texas; Lancaster, California; Miami, Oklahoma; Mesa, Arizona; Clewiston, Florida; Ponca City, Oklahoma; and Sweetwater, Texas.

AT-6 2A RAF Texan (aka Harvard)

During the period of greatest threat to Australia in 1942, Winston Churchill agreed to release three squadrons of Spitfires from service in England.  This included No. 54 squadron plus two RAAF expeditionary squadrons serving in Britain, Nos. 452 and 457.  The Spitfire was at the time the premier Allied air defense fighter.

Pilots of RAF No. 54 Squadron

The squadrons arrived in Australia in October 1942 and were grouped as No. 1 Wing.  They were assigned the defense of the Darwin area in January of 1943.  The Wing remained in that role for the remainder of the war.  In late 1943 two additional RAF Squadrons were formed in Australia, Nos. 548 and 549.  These relieved the RAAF Spitfire squadrons for eventual duty with the 1st RAAF Tactical Air Force.

RAF C-47 Dakota over Burma

No. 618 Squadron, a Mosquito squadron armed with the Wallis bomb for anti-shipping missions was sent to the Pacific in late 1944 but never saw active service and was disbanded in June 1945.

In 1945 two Dakota squadrons, Nos. 238 and 243, were sent to the Pacific to provide support for the British Pacific Fleet.

The RAF’s No. 205 squadron, which was stationed in Ceylon, was responsible for air services between Ceylon and Australia during the war.

Raf ground crew & Singhalese lowering a Catalina of the 240th Squadron into the water, Red Hills Lake, Ceylon, 4 August 1945

Should the war have continued beyond VJ day, the RAF planned to send the “Tiger Force” to Okinawa to support operations against the Japanese home islands.  As of 10 July 1945, the “Tiger Force” was planned to be composed of No. 5 (RAF) Group and No. 6 (RCAF) Group with 9 British, 8 Canadian, 2 Australian, and 1 New Zealand heavy bomber squadrons.  The Force was to be supported by Pathfinder Squadron and a Photo/Weather Recon squadron from the RAF and 3 Transport and one air/sea rescue Squadrons from the RCAF.

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British Military Humor –

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Farewell Salutes – 

Eileen Brown – London, ENG; WRAF, WWII, ETO

Irving Fenster – Tulsa, OK; US Navy, WWII

Tedd Holeman – Sugar City, ID; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, HQS/127 Engineers/11th Airborne Division

Stanley Jones – Shrewsbury, ENG; RAF, Chaplain

Daniel Lynn Jr. – Krupp, WA; US Army, WWII, ETO / Korea

Stanley Mellot – Grand John, CAN; RAF, WWII, navigator

James Raymond – Katanning, AUS, RAF, WWII

Paul Seifert Sr. – Bethlehem, PA; US Army, Korea, 82nd Airborne Division

David ‘Ken’ Thomas – Brown’s Bay, NZ; RAF # 1669434, WWII

Arthur Wan – Milwaukee, WI; US Navy, WWII, PTO

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British Armed Forces Day/ US PTSD Month & Day

WE SALUTE YOU!

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British Humour – 

WWII

WWII

WWI humour

WWI humour

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Click on to read, thank you.

Click on to read, thank you.

PTSD Awareness Month is June, today the 27th is the U.S. National PTSD Day

If for any reason you feel you have been affected or wish to check for assistance in knowing more, please contact HERE!! Teal ###############################################################################

Let’s get our children interested in history!!!  Don’t let them think this way!!!

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70th V-E Day

WWII US Army veteran Howard Harvey @ Washington DC ceremonies

WWII US Army veteran Howard Harvey @ Washington DC ceremonies

On May 8, 1945, millions of people around the globe took to the streets to celebrate the World War II surrender of Germany on what came to be known as Victory in Europe Day, or V-E Day. At 2:41 a.m. local time the previous day, representatives from the victorious Allied nations met with German officials in Reims, France, to sign the official surrender documents but, in accordance with an earlier agreement between leaders in the United States, Soviet Union and United Kingdom, the news of the end of hostilities on the continent was withheld for 24 hours and announced simultaneously on the 8th. In London, spotlights in the form of a “V” for victory were turned on over St. Paul’s Cathedral—although it took some time to get them working again after nearly six years of wartime blackouts. In the United States a newly sworn-in president got a very unusual birthday present. And in the Soviet Union, a powerful leader was already planning his next, post-war moves. Millions had been killed, rationing continued and there was still three months of deadly fighting ahead, but for a few hours, the world stopped to commemorate and celebrate. As we remember its 68th anniversary, here are some surprising facts you may not know about V-E Day.

V-E Day

It took 20 hours to complete the surrender documents.
Following the suicide of Adolf Hitler on April 30 and the collapse of the Nazi Party, the end of the war in Europe was clearly in sight. Susan Hibbert, a British secretary stationed at Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) in Reims, France, began working on a series of documents and cables to world leaders informing them of the impending surrender. On May 6, after the arrival of General Alfred Jodl, the chief of staff to new German President Karl Dönitz, in Reims, Hibbert and other staffers knew the end was imminent. That morning, she began typing the English version of the Act of Military Surrender and, thanks to repeated changes in wording from all parties, didn’t finish until 20 hours later. Finally, at around 2:30 am May 7, Hibbert and other staffers crowded into a conference room to witness one of the most momentous events of the 20th century. Curiously, General Dwight Eisenhower, Supreme Allied Commander and architect of the successful war strategy, didn’t attend the ceremony, and was instead represented by his chief of staff Walter Bedell Smith. He did, however, decide how the historic news would be relayed around the world. While many on his staff pressed for a strongly worded declaration of victory, “Ike” overruled them, instead crafting a far simpler message to announce the end of six deadly years of conflict: “The mission of this Allied Force was fulfilled at 0241, local time, May 7th, 1945.”Joseph Stalin insisted on a second surrender ceremony.
As the fighting neared its end, the post-war political wrangling had already begun. When Soviet leader Joseph Stalin heard about the surrender ceremony in Reims, he was none too pleased. He declared that the U.S.S.R’s representative there, Ivan Susloparov, had not been authorized to sign the document and that the wording differed from a previous agreement Stalin had approved. Stalin, who ensured Soviet troops were the first to arrive in Berlin in an effort to secure control of the city before the Allies, also refused to accept a surrender signed on French soil, and declared the Reims document simply a preliminary surrender. Stalin’s remarks caused massive confusion; German radio announced that the Axis may have surrendered on the Western Front, but remained at war with the Soviets, and fighting continued throughout the day on May 8. Finally, just before midnight (in the early hours of the 9th, Moscow time), another hastily assembled ceremony got underway in Soviet-controlled Berlin. So, while much of the world would commemorate V-E Day on May 8, Victory Day in the Russia and its republics would be celebrated on May 9.

Halifax, Canada - V-E Day 1945

Halifax, Canada – V-E Day 1945

V-E Day sparked the deadly Halifax Riot.
Unfortunately, not every V-E Day celebration ended peacefully. For six years tensions had been rising in the critical Canadian port city of Halifax, Nova Scotia, as thousands of sailors flooded the city, more than doubling its population. With housing, commodities and entertainment in short supply, prices were high and tempers were extremely short. On May 7, when word reached the city of the impending surrender, business leaders, fearing an influx of servicemen in search of a celebration, decided to close all liquor stores, restaurants and stores, while the city suspended local transportation. Despite these concerns, the nearby military base’s commander gave more than 10,000 sailors temporary leave to enjoy the end of the war downtown. Angered at what they considered gross mistreatment by city residents, and with little in the way of peaceful diversions, the men eventually began to riot, looting retail stores and liquor outlets and starting dozens of fires. The Halifax Riot continued into May 8, with another 9,000 sailors teeming into town. By the time order was restored and the looting had stopped late that afternoon, three servicemen were dead, 360 had been arrested and the city had suffered more than $5 million in damages—$62 million in today’s money.

It made for a fine presidential birthday present.
On May 8, 1945, Harry Truman had been president for just 26 days—in fact, he had only moved into the White House the day before. Writing to his mother and sister, Truman informed them of the German surrender the day before (which he would announce to the country shortly after finishing the letter), and noted the day’s other, more personal, significance—it was his 61st birthday. When Truman met with reporters later that morning to discuss the surrender, he dedicated the victory to his predecessor Franklin D. Roosevelt, who had died less than a month earlier, then quietly slipped away to celebrate both his birthday and V-E Day with friends and aides.

Reims, France - site of German surrender 1945

Reims, France – site of German surrender 1945

The location of the surrender was known as France’s city of kings.
The French city of Reims, like much of Europe, had suffered mightily in the early 20th century: Nearly 80 percent of the city had been destroyed during World War I and again during the second world war, when the Nazi-occupied city was heavily bombed by Allied planes. Located in the northeast part of the country, it is today probably best known for producing some of the best champagne in the world. But for hundreds of years, Reims played a crucial (if ceremonial) role in French history. Beginning in 496 with the baptism of Clovis, Rheims was where the coronation of 33 French kings were consecrated, all using anointing oil that according to legend, had been provided directly by God. During the Hundred Years War, Joan of Arc liberated the city and had Charles VII crowned king in the city’s cathedral. The tradition continued until 1825, when Charles X became the last king to be consecrated in Reims.

050506VEDay

by: John Fewings

Information courtesy of History.com

To view previous V-E Day posts – CLICK HERE and then HERE.

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Political Cartoons ~ from back in the day ~

szyk6

by: Arthur Szyk (1894-1951)

 

There you are!  Don't lose it again!

There you are! Don’t lose it again!

Post-Register, Idaho Falls, ID

Post-Register, Idaho Falls, ID

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Farewell Salutes – 

David Baron – WPalm Beach, FL; US Navy, WWII

The Final Farewell

The Final Farewell

Anthony Dacquisto – Winnipeg, CAN; RC Army, WWII, ETO/Korea, Intelligence Corps

Riley Foster, Sr. – Stiglar, OK; US Navy, WWII

Dorothy Grant – Auckland, NZ; NZWAAC # 72475, WWII, nurse

John Kreiper Jr. – Washington, DC; US Army, WWII/ US Air Force, Major (Ret.)

Andrew Morrison – Palm Springs, FL; US Navy, Korea, USS Northhampton, Aerographer

J.W. Royals – Dover, TN; US Army, 408th/11th A/B Div.

Bill Schlossberg – W.Orange, NJ; US Army, WWII, ETO, Bronze Star

Jack Sonnenblick – Harrison, NY; US Army, WWII, ETO, 1st Lt., Combat Engineers

Fred Tucker – Karori, NZ; RNZ Air Force (Ret.)

 

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Current News

Mike Day - Navy Seal

Mike Day – Navy Seal

A former US Navy Seal, Mike Day is currently still fighting for his fellow soldiers.  Day was shot 27 times by al Qaida gunmen in Iraq in 2007, but the Silver Star recipient didn’t quit.  After a long recovery, he will soon compete in his first triathlon – a 1.2 mile swim, 56-mile bike run and 13.1-mile run – later this month, and he has used his training to raise nearly $80,000 for Carrick Brain Centers, a Dallas hospital specializing in treating veterans suffering from PTSD. (“The Week” magazine)

Mike Day

Mike Day

“My life’s mission is now not about me,” Day said.  “It is to care for and lead my wounded brothers and sisters.”

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USS Oklahoma, in finer days

USS Oklahoma, in finer days

Honolulu (FOX News) – The Pentagon said Tuesday it would exhume and try to identify the remains of nearly 400 sailors and Marines killed when the USS Oklahoma capsized after being hit by 9 torpedoes at the bombing of Pearl Harbor.  Hundreds were buried as unknowns at cemeteries in Hawaii.  In 1950, they were re-interred at the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific inside a volcanic crater in Honolulu.

USS Oklahoma capsizing

USS Oklahoma capsizing

The military is acting now, more than 70 years later, because of the advances in forensic science and technology and genealogical help from family members.  Officials plan to begin work in 3-6 weeks.  They aim to identify the remains of up to 388 servicemen within 5 years.  In 2003, one casket was disinterred based on information provided by Ray Emory, a Pearl Harbor survivor.

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USS Gary (FFG-51)

USS Gary (FFG-51)

San Diego – The USS Gary (FFG-51), a Navy frigate, has returned to the San Diego Naval Base from her final deployment; Operation Martillo.  Her final final mission targeted the illicit trafficking routes along the Central American coastline.

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Alan Turing and the enigma machine

Alan Turing and the enigma machine

NYC – Alan Turing’s 56-page handwritten cryptology notebook from WWII sold at auction in NYC, NY for $1 million.  Turing was the British codebreaker who worked at Bletchley Park on the enigma machine.  In later years, Turing was arrested for breaking the UK’s homosexuality laws.  He died 7 June 1954 of an apparent suicide.

Turing's notebook at auction

Turing’s notebook at auction

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(top-row) Capt. Marvin Watkins, William Fredericks (died in medical experiments), Howard Shingledecker (fate unknown), Charles Kearns (died at crash site), Dale Plambeck (medical experiments), Front-row - Robert Johnson (died at crash site), Teddy Ponczka (medical experiments), Robert Williams (medical experiments), Leon Czarnecki (medical experiments), Leo Oeinck (crash site), John Colehower (medical experiments), 2 others, names unknown, died from medical experiments.

(top-row) Capt. Marvin Watkins, William Fredericks (died in medical experiments), Howard Shingledecker (fate unknown), Charles Kearns (died at crash site), Dale Plambeck (medical experiments), Front-row – Robert Johnson (died at crash site), Teddy Ponczka (medical experiments), Robert Williams (medical experiments), Leon Czarnecki (medical experiments), Leo Oeinck (crash site), John Colehower (medical experiments), 2 others, names unknown, died from medical experiments.

Fukuoka, Kyushu, Japan – The Kyushu University has opened a museum acknowledging that its staff had taken 8 U.S. POWs, captured after their B-29 was shot down, taken to the center’s medical school and dissected alive for medical experiments.  The 12 men in Captain Marvin Watkin’s crew took off from Guam to bomb the Fukuoka airfield and bailed out when a Japanese fighter rammed their plane.

War Crime Trial

War Crime Trial

Local residents converged on the surviving airmen.  One emptied his pistol at the crowd before shooting himself dead, and another was stabbed to death by the civilians.  Capt. Watkins was interrogated and survived the war.  Todoshi Tono, one of the doctors involved, later spent his life exposing the atrocities.  He told the ‘Baltimore Sun’ that one of the flyers, stabbed by locals, presumed he was going to be treated for his wounds when he arrived at the operating theatre, but was dissected instead.  A memorial has been erected honoring the airmen.

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Current humor – 

Palm Beach Post, Sunday comics

Palm Beach Post, Sunday comics

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Personal Note – This was by far the hardest post I have ever put together.  I apologize for not including the Farewell Salutes, they will continue in Monday’s post.  And, a sincere Thank you to YOU out there – my Readers and Friends for helping to make this blog a part of your own family histories and yourselves.  Your story and link contributions do more to make Pacific Paratrooper what it is than I ever could. I don’t believe I show my appreciation often enough for your time and effort to keep our veteran’s services to us alive in our memories and our hearts.  Thank you___ GP Cox

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Malayan Campaign (2)

Gen. Bennet at Gemas

Gen. Bennet at Gemas

General Bennett’s story continued_______

Then came the battle of Bakri where the 19th and 29th held the road for several days although they were being attacked on all sides.  The men who survived fought their way back…destroyed their equipment and tried to filter back in small parties.

Next, the Japanese concentrated on the Batu Pahat…they landed men in sampans.  Troops had just arrived from England and were quite unused to Malayan conditions and they were unsuccessful in landing at Batu Pahat.  This meant our force at Gemas was almost cut off.  Our withdrawal from the Gemas area was one of the saddest events of the campaign from the Australian point of view.  During the next week the whole force was gradually withdrawn.

Singapore

Singapore

Sadly the men crossed the causeway to Singapore Island.  Our position was strengthened by the arrival of the 4th (W.A.) Machine Gun Battalion.  The 7 Australian battalions were given the western half of the island.  The A.I.F had the 44th Indian Brigade.  The 3rd Indian Corps had the newly arrived English division.  When the men began to build beach posts for machine-guns and beach lights, the Japanese aircraft flew up and down bombing them.

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The Japanese were able to observe the Australian positions so closely by air, they made maps showing everyone of them.  They launched their attacks in boats in the dark overwhelming the thin defense…Our units received inadequate support from other units…It must be remembered that many of these troops were exhausted after the long fight in Malaya.

Lookout

Lookout

Even at this stage, the A.I.F. managed to form a strong perimeter, which the enemy smashed over and over again…retirements on our flanks forced withdrawals until our line approached the city itself.  Then the enemy was able to concentrate his whole air force and many of his guns on Singapore, which was being reduced to a pile of rubble.  Casualties among the civilians were very heavy.  The city’s water supply was cut off.

Brig. Duncan Maxwell

Brig. Duncan Maxwell

Our forces were so depleted in the A.I.F. that it was necessary to use noncombatant troops…signalers, Army Service Corps and ordnance – did fine work.  At the end we occupied a perimeter we refused to budge.  It was in this position when the direction to surrender was made.  Brigadier Maxwell who is a doctor in civilian life was given permission to hand over his command to work in an Australian hospital – all the nurses had been withdrawn from the island.

JT5_1942 (800x557)

[General Bennett made an escape from Singapore to Australia via Java.  Brigadier Maxwell remained a prisoner until September 1945; when he returned to Australia.]

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British Military Humor – 

Home Guard cadets

Home Guard cadets

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Farewell Salutes – 

Kathleen Daniels – Michigan & FL; US Army7388b_To-Honor-Ones-Country-Wreath

Robert Isgrove – Botony, NZ; RNZ Navy # 16636, WWII

Thomas Lapinski – Toledo, OH; US Army, 187th RCT, Korea

Rowena Littrell – Austin, TX; US  Army, WWII, nurse corps

Peter Miles – Coffs Harbour Base, AUS; RA Navy

Jeffrey Piter – WPalm Beach, FL; US Army, Vietnam

William Royal – Sun City, AZ; US Army, WWII, ETO, Capt.(Ret. 20 years), 390 Bomber Group

Ronald Stuart – CAN; British Army “Queen’s Own Cameron Highlanders & Madras Reg., Capt. & Canadian Militia & Intelligence, WWII

Alva Tubbs – Kenai, AK; US Navy, WWII, Underwater Demolition Team

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War Warnings (2)

SBD Douglas Dauntless, 1940

SBD Douglas Dauntless, 1940

 
27 November, 1941 – Cordell Hull tells Stanley Hornbeck (Far Eastern adviser) that he has washed his hands of the affair and it is now “in the hands of the Army and Navy.”  An intelligence message is sent out to all commands: “IF HOSTILITIES CANNOT – repeat – CANNOT BE AVOIDED THE UNITED STATES DESIRES JAPAN COMMIT THE FIRST ACT.”  Although, Hawaii received the message that indicated Japan’s strike was expected to hit..”PHILIPPINES, THAILAND OR KRA PENINSULA OR BORNEO.”
28 November – FDR tried to stall negotiations while the Far East prepared for attacks.  A message was sent to all military commanders to prepare for war – every man to be told to remain alert and vigilant at their battle stations.
30 November – Churchill cabled Roosevelt that he should warn Japan that the United States would declare war in the event of any further aggression, including British colonies.
1 December – FDR agreed to Churchill’s cable and told Lord Halifax that any attack on British or Dutch possessions, “we shall be all be in this together.”  The Japanese Emperor did not dissent to Operation Z, so the military sent out the code signal Hinode Yamagata (Malaya and Philippine attack on scheduled date) for the Southern Army and the Pearl Harbor Strike Force received the code – Nitaka Yama Nobore (Climb Mount Nitaka).
2 December – Admiral Kimmel in Hawaii expressed concern over over the lack of intelligence on the location of the Japanese Combined Fleet.  (In Holland, the Naval center had the Pacific Strike Force on their maps and the information was given to D.C.)
Indian Commonwealth troops arrive at Singapore, Nov.'41

Indian Commonwealth troops arrive at Singapore, Nov.’41

3 December – the HMS “Prince of Wales” docked at Changi Naval Base and reported a ‘powerful naval force’ was at Malaya.  Adm. Kimmel received “highly reliable information” from Naval Intelligence that failed to include the 2 decoded Japanese messages that clearly showed their interest in the Hawaiian Islands.
4 December – the US Naval Governor on Guam was ordered to destroy all classified material.  The Cheltenham Naval listening post in Maryland heard the Japanese message, EAST WIND RAIN, and passed it on to Commander Safford.  No action was taken and all copied of the message somehow disappeared.  The Japanese Strike Force, due north of Midway, refueled.
5 December – the carrier “Lexington” left Hawaii to ferry aircraft to Midway.
 
 
pearl2
 
6 December – south of Cape Cambodia, 19 Japanese transports escorted by cruisers and destroyers was reported by a Royal Australian Air Force Hudson pilot before he was shot down.  London put the entire Far East Command on alert.   On Formosa, 27 transports filled with the 48th Division of the Imperial Army set sail for the Philippines as 400 pilots of the Imperial Navy’s 11th Air Fleet received final briefings for their bombing runs on the American B-17s at Luzon.  Messages between Consul Kita and Tokyo were being ignored as insignificant and would not be translated by the US until Monday (8 Dec.).  2130 hours –  FDR was handed the message that stated Japan rejected the US 10-point proposal and says outright, “This means war,” but he did NOT wish to alert or wake Adm. Stark or Gen. Marshall.
 
Member of the Japanese military were told that they were embarking on a great crusade to be free, “a hundred million Asians tyrannized by 3 hundred thousand whites.”  Japanese civilians slept, unaware of the plans of their 169 ships and over 2,000 aircraft ready to set the Pacific sky ablaze.
 
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Political cartoon of the times_____

the political side of Dr. Seuss

the political side of Dr. Seuss

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Farewell Salutes – 

Ivan Billcliff – Hamilton, NZ ; RNZ Air Force # 411147, Cpl, WWII

Gene Cross – Belle Glade, FL; Civilian employee of Fort Benning, GA, WWII

William Finlayson – British Columbia, Can; RC Air Force, WWII, tail gunnerMissing MAn (800x583)

Cal Hale – Glendale, AZ; US Army,Sgt. Major, 3 tours Vietnam, Bronze Star

David Johnson – Tolland, CA; USMC, Cpl, Vietnam, 3 Purple Hearts

Jim McDonald – Kennesaw, GA; US Army, WWII

Charles Pernice, Orange, CA; US Army Air Corps, WWII & Korea, Flt. engineer & gunner on B-29s

Thomas Richards – Virginia Bch, VA; USMC, Lt.Col., Vietnam

Donald Wolf – Wood River, IL; US Navy, WWII

Andrew Zamora – Seal Beach, CA; US Army, Korea, 187th RCT

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East and West (2)

 

The caption should read, "Tenno HEIKA banzai"

The caption should read, “Tenno HEIKA banzai”

Caption correction of the shout is courtesy of Mustang Koji who can be found HERE!!

Click photo to read caption.

On 18 February 1931, the League of Nations, with America in the lead, issued the “Nonrecognition Doctrine” which pushed Japan’s anger even further.  [ to read what is also known as the Stimson Doctrine – click HERE!!   US Ambassador Joseph Grew in Tokyo persisted in his warnings against this action.  But, even the in-coming president [FDR] and Secretary of State, Cornell Hull argued for the status quo.

Ambassador Joseph Grew, 1939

Ambassador Joseph Grew, 1939

Stimson w/ the Doctrine, 1939

Stimson w/ the Doctrine, 1939

In 1936, FDR and his drive for naval appropriations caused 50,000 veterans to stage a March for Peace in front of the White House.  Children were organized under a banner of “Money for schools, not battleships.”  Privately, FDR raged about isolationists and pacifists as early as 1937 when he held a rally in Chicago in the attempt to gain support to “quarantine” Japan.  The Japanese quest to become a major world power became their primary goal.

In 1939, FDR sent $25 million to the Chunking government to carry on their war with Japan; while Britain told Australia and New Zealand not to worry – the US would not remain indifferent to the Japanese threat in the Far East.  The Australian Prime Minister told the Canberra Parliament, “What Great Britain calls the Far East is to us the Near North.”  Richard Casey met with the British Foreign Office and was told, “the defense of the territories in the Pacific would be determined by the needs in Europe” – they were virtually being abandoned.

FDR campaigning in Warms Springs, GA, 4 April 1939

FDR campaigning in Warms Springs, GA, 4 April 1939

By January 1940, Churchill was cabling FDR daily for more aircraft and supplies to help Britain keep good its promise, “We shall never surrender;” under the Lend Lease Program, [which was being stretched beyond its legal limits more and more each day].  Japan’s growing power was being ignored.  What was commonly misunderstood by Western cultures was that the Japanese Army and Navy Ministries were part of the governmental structure and the military was gaining power each day.

The British interwar plans for a conflict with Japan as early as 1940 depended entirely on the US.  The American plans named “Orange” envisioned a trans-Pacific projection of US power, with Manila serving as a base of operations in the Far East.  But, by 1941, “Plan Dog” foresaw the Atlantic as the offensive and the Pacific in a defensive state.

Japan's Second Cabinet, early 1940

Japan’s Second Cabinet, early 1940

By 1941, the regular cabinet members of the Japanese gov’t were on a need-to-know basis and entire civilian cabinets were forced to resign as the war drew closer.  Japan’s signing of the Tripartite Pact on 27 September 1940 with Germany and Italy, [was to Japan], a trade agreement, plus a way to keep Russia busy and unable to hinder her while she invaded Indochina.  This was not the view of the West and caused further deterioration of Us/Japanese relations.

In his campaign for an unprecedented third term in office, FDR spouted in Boston, MA, “I give you one more assurance.  I have said it before, but I shall say it again and again and again:  Your boys are NOT going to be sent to any foreign war.”  (As we all know now – that was merely a hollow political promise.).

To be continued…..

Click on images to enlarge.

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A View of the homefront – 1939 

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 Political Cartoon of the times – 

Neutrality%20Act

 

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Farewell Salutes – 

Robert “Eggs” Avington – St. Petersburg, FL; US Army (Ret.), Korea, Distinguished Service Cross, Purple Heart

Thomas Cushing – Hopkinton, NH; US Army, WWII, PTOimg_96953714425802

Marjorie Effinger – Atwater, CA; US Army, nurse, PTO

Thomas Groom – Christchurch, NZ; RNZ Army# 19274, WWII

Patrick Holland – Halifax, Can; RC Navy, RC Army, RC Air Force, Major (Ret. 42 years) 3rd Clasp to the Canadian Decoration

William McFatter – Vernon, FL; US Army, WWII, ETO, Purple Heart

Robert McCurley – Springfield, IL; US Army Air Corps, WWII, POW

Melvin Shubert – NY & Lake Worth, FL; US Navy, WWII, Medical Corps

Tedrowe Watkins – Big Fork, Montana; US Marine Corps, WWII

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East and West (1)

There are centuries of information on this subject, but I’ve done my best to shorten the data, and maintain  the gist of affairs as they occurred:

A lithograph of Cmdr. Perry's fleet in Japan

A lithograph of Cmdr. Perry’s fleet in Japan

Japan’s involvement with the West began early in the 16th century.  The Western missionaries and the contrasting firearms trading caused a disruption of the feudal lord system.  Later on, Dutch trading at Nagasaki became an avenue of scientific and political knowledge.  After which, the US naval mission and “Black Ships” of Commodore Matthew Perry in the mid-1800s basically forced Japan to open its doors.

Commodore Matthew Perry

Commodore Matthew Perry

By the end of the 19th century, the views of the Asian world by the Anglos were of “Manifest Destiny” (global supremacy).  The British Union Jack flew over nearly one-third of the planet and the US wanted in.  But, after teaching the island nation how to conquer territory, the West became annoyed that they had learned so well.  In 1922, the Naval Limitation Treaty forced the Imperial Navy to limit her battleship tonnage to a ration of 60% of the British Royal Navy and US Navy. (This was easy to control being as the Japanese ships were built in British shipyards.  But, in 1937, Japan resigned from this pact.)

Lt.Colonel Ishiwara Kanji

Lt.Colonel Ishiwara Kanji

In 1929, Lt.Col. Ishiwara Kanji drafted “A Plan for the Solution of the Manchurian and Mongolian Problems as a Basic Policy to Change Our Country’s Destiny.”  This work was a remarkably close scenario for the Pacific War and by the 1930’s, the Japanese had started the plan by taking control of what the citizens would and would not be told of their agenda.

The great game of “Empire” was on!  Not only did countries vie for a piece of China, but major corporations came into play – Standard Oil, House of Morgan, The Pennsylvania Railroad, Bethlehem Steel and the Roosevelt family fortune founded on the Opium Road. (20% of Great Britain’s income also came from the opium trade.)  While President Hoover was in office, he feared any actions against Japan would lead to war – such as Henry Stimson’s proposed oil and trade embargo.  To Hoover, this resembled “sticking pins in tigers.”  The president felt his Secretary of State was “proving to be more of a warrior than a diplomat.”

Japanese soldiers entering Shenyang, 1931

Japanese soldiers entering Shenyang, 1931

In the 1930’s, the Japanese government crushed freedom of expression, pacifism and anti-militarism.  Their intent was to keep the public ignorant, but even this was not enough.  In the schools, children were taught a willingness to die for the country in time of war, chukan aikoku, along with a contempt for the Chinese.

Japanese gym class, 1930

Japanese gym class, 1930

During the Russo-Japanese War, school subjects were planned with militarism in mind:  Math classes were occupied with calculations of military matters; Science was information on searchlights, wireless communications, land mines, torpedoes, submarines and explosives; Gym included war games and Music Classes rang out with war songs and pictures of Japanese victories inspired compositions.  A new order for East Asia needed to be instilled; what the Germans called – Lebensraum.

To be continued….

Click on images to enlarge.

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Current news – 

Not all news is bad news_______

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Please click on to read.                                                                       Both items were taken from ‘The Week’ magazine

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Political Humor –  (Typical of the times)

From Dr. Seuss

From Dr. Seuss

Cartoon is courtesy of Chris @ Muscleheaded, which can be found HERE>

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Farewell Salutes – 

WWII Victory Medal

WWII Victory Medal

Louis Amundson – San Diego, CA; US Army, WWII (D-Day), ETO

Charles Corbitt -CA & FL; US Army Air Corps, WWII, navigator

Clarence Frye – Lake Worth, FL; US Army, WWII

John Hardwick – Hartford City, IL; US Army, Korea

Ralph Locher – Nashville, TN; US Army, Korea, 187th RCT, MP

Charles Pine – Taupo, NZ; RNZIR # U50940, WWII

Jack Stewart – Salem, OR; US Navy, WWII

Robert Wallace – Rosalia, WA; US Army, Korea, tank driver

Howard German Jr. – Easton, MD & N.Palm Bch, FL; US Army, 82nd Airborne

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Intermission Stories (18)

Once we get back into WWII, we will mainly have Pacific Theater information here.  So, during this intermission time, I’ll take this opportunity to include another European Theater story.

X-Troop, George Lane is standing, back row center

X-Troop, George Lane is standing, back row center

 

Mr. X Meets the Desert Fox

George Lane aka: Lanyi Gyorgy

British Commando, No. 10 X Troop

In the spring of 1942, Lord Mountbatten created a commando unit made up of 10 troops.  No. 10 consisted of European born Jewish volunteers to be described as “unknown warriors,” false identities included.  To prove their loyalty, these men were required to perform extremely dangerous operations behind enemy lines.

Lanyi Gyorgy, Hungarian-born, was in England in 1939 and married Miriam Rothschild in 1943; it was through her connections that he was able to enlist in the army at all.  On 15-17 May, before D-Day, the newly named “George Lane” and “Roy Woolridge” were sent to Normandy Beach to search for mines.  They brought back an old corroded sample.  They were sent back to locate and photograph the anti-tank obstacle known as Element C.

George Lane

George Lane

Upon eluding capture on shore, a German patrol boat caught them in their dory and brought them back to the beach.  Lane’s interrogator insisted he was a saboteur and a member of the special services.  (An interpreter was used because Lane insisted he did not speak German).  Lane continued to state he had been on a troop ship that sunk in the Channel and he knew nothing.  He had his hands bound and a blindfold applied, but it was not done correctly – he could see out of the bottom.

George was led to a car and saw Roy sitting in the rear, he was put in the front.  During the drive, he pretended to sleep, head tilted back to view the route and memorize the French street signs.  At a large castle, an English-speaking German officer gave him food and tea and requested he was up to meet someone; he said, “…can I count on you to act like an officer and a gentleman?”  Lane agreed that he was indeed a gentleman.

He was brought into a vast ballroom and a slim, impressive general walked up to greet him.  Lane recognized him at once – the legendary “Desert Fox”, Field Marshal Erwin Rommel.  “So you are one of those gangster commandos?”  Lanes replied that he heard the commandos were the best in the world.  “So, you are a commando?  And a saboteur too, I suppose?”  Lane answered that he wouldn’t have been invited to the castle if that were true.

Field Marshall Erwin Rommel; The Desert Fox

Field Marshall Erwin Rommel; The Desert Fox

“You call this and invitation, do you?” Rommel snorted.  “Of course,” Lane said to the interpreter, “But also a privilege,” and then he smiled.  Rommel began to laugh and the discussion went on for about 20 minutes.  The general promised he would be treated fairly as a POW.  Lane and Woolrige both agreed that they were.

At the POW camp, Lane reported to the English senior officer, Col. E. Miller and admitted he was a commando in X-Troop.  A coded message was sent to England to confirm his identity along with the name of a road sign he remembered by the castle.  17 July, Rommel’s car was strafed by a Typhoon fighter-bomber, the driver killed and the general injured so badly he was forced to relinquish his command.  There is no proof that Lane’s info caused the attack, but he was awarded the Military Cross for his services.

Military Cross

Military Cross

He returned to the castle 40 years later and asserted that he always believed General Rommel had saved his life.

George Lane passed away on 19 March 2010 at the age of 95.  His story here was derived from one that appears in “True Stories of D-Day” by Henry Brook and The Telegraph.co.uk.  These are the only 2 photos of George Lane I was able to locate.

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Farewell Salutes – 

Fred Bickley, Jr. – Birmingham, AL; US Army, WWII

John Boyle – Farmingdale, NY; US Air Force, Korea

A Farewell Salute

A Farewell Salute

David R. Clare – Westfield, NJ & No.Palm Bch., FL; US Navy, WWII

Charles Garrison III – Long Beach, CA; US Army, Ranger

Anne Jarvie – Rotorua, NZ – RAF # 2145065 & RNZ Air Force # 73299, WWII

Sydney Johnson – Colorado Springs, CO; US Army, Korea, Military photographer

David Lake – Buhl, ID; US Army Air Corps, WWII, ETO, flight engineer, B-17’s

John Niceley – Front Royal, VA; US Navy, WWII

Richard Parrish, Jr. – No.Palm Beach; US Army Air Corps, Lt., B-17 pilot

Walter Shackel – Port Washington, NY; US Army, WWII, 86th Mountain Infantry

George Thomas – Toronto, Can; RCAF, WWII, Squadron 435-436, Burma/India Theater

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