Handling additional Pacific Surrenders

 

Okinawa surrender

In the Ryukyus Islands, things were far more simple than on the Missouri. The senior officer in the Sakishima Gunto, Lt. General Gon Nomi, Toshiro, whose headquarters was on Miyako Shima, had been given authority to conclude a peace treaty for all Army and Navy forces in the Sakishima Gunto, Daito Islands and the islands in the Okinawa Gunto not already under American control. The official papers were signed on 7 September 1945, with General Stillwell presiding.

Gen. Hata at the Soviet surrender table.

General Shunroku Hata and his Army had taken only three weeks in April-May of 1944 to rout 300,000 Chinese soldiers in Honan to secure the Peking-Hankow railroad. He then moved south and then west to meet up with the Japanese forces in French Indochina. The 14th Air Force and the Chinese Air Force could not stop the offensive and by the end of May, General Marshall and the Joint Chiefs of Staff basically wrote off the Chinese Theater. Yet in the end, Gen. Hata signs the surrender.

Lord Louis Mountbatten with MacArthur

12 September, Lord Mountbatten accepted the surrender of all enemy forces in Southeast Asia in Singapore. Once again, the Union Jack was flying over Government House. But, due to Britain’s overstretched resources, Japanese soldiers were used to maintain law and order in the region. Europe’s colonialism was severely damaged and in 1947, Britain granted independence to India and Pakistan.

17 August, American parachutists landed near Nanking on the Wse-hsien interment camp. The Japanese were forced to protect the troopers from the unrest (actually chaos) erupting in the area between Communist and Nationalist armies. On 9 September, General Ho Chin accepted the Japanese surrender of China (except Manchuria, Formosa [now Taiwan] and Indochina north of the 16th parallel in the name of Chiang Kai. Mao’s forces stayed away even though Allied officials were present. By not being at Central Military Academy in Whampoa, he was in violation of the Potsdam accords and went on to accept his own regional surrenders.

Lt. Gen. Masao Baba at Borneo surrender

The British had been slow in retaking Hong Kong and revolts broke out. The POWs were not receiving food and the Chinese population caused riots in the streets. The British civil servants eventually took over while the Japanese kept the order. 16 September, the official surrender took place, but not until November were all Japanese troops in the New Territories relieved, disarmed and repatriated.

After a meeting in Rangoon, Mountbatten arranged for the Allied forces to enter Siam and Indochina. Thirteen days later, he flew his 7th Indian Division to Bangkok to move onward to Saigon. They were to assist the French in securing the southern half of Vietnam again as a French colony. The Americans felt that the French had already bled the country dry over the past century and so here – the start of the Vietnam War that would last until 1974.

Thailand had survived by playing both sides while attempting to appear neutral. Japanese General Hamada, responsible for heinous POW atrocities, committed seppuku.

Indonesia was grateful to the Japanese for throwing out the Dutch and declared their independence. Although British and Dutch troops made attempts to return them to colonization, they resisted. The Americans moved in with orders to disarm the Japanese and then leave. It would take four years of fighting before the Hague would recognize Indonesia as a sovereign country.

THE JAPANESE SURRENDER IN BURMA, 1945 (SE 4821) Brigadier E F E Armstrong of British 12th Army staff signs the surrender document at Rangoon on behalf of the Allies. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205208318

 

Burma disliked the Japanese, but they had given them a taste of independence from the British. They took no part in the surrender proceedings. After the Japanese were shipped home and fighting resumed with the British, the independent nation nation was established 4 January 1948.

India had acquired their own army under the Japanese Co-Prosperity Sphere, but not independence. After the war, the British tried in vain to hold the country, but hostility forced them to grant India their freedom in 1947. The transition was overseen by Governor General Mountbatten.

Korea – September 1945 – being relieved of all weapons

In Korea, the Japanese were ordered to sweep Inchon harbor of mines before the American fleet arrived. The Japanese, here again, were needed to maintain order until Koreans could be trained to contain the mobs. Korea had actually been ignored as far as surrender and removal of the Japanese. The U.S. had gone there to disarm the enemy. The end result of the incompetent handling of Korea during and after WWII attributed to the Korean War.

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Military Humor – 

Best Before end of the world

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Farewell Salutes – 

Robert M. Abbott – Arvada, CO; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, HQ Co/11th Airborne Division,

‘Japan Surrender’ by: Howard Brodie

Patrick Blanchard Jr. – Minot, ND; US Army, Operation Iraq & Afghanistan, B Co/2/506/101st Airborne Division

Armada “Joe” Cafazzo – Hartford, CT; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, 11th Airborne Division

Louis J. Demotsis – Talladega, AL; US Army Air Corps, WWII, ETO, B-17 belly gunner

George “Bob” Gamble – Liberty Lake, WA; US Navy, end of WWII, PTO, bringing troops home

Richard E. Johanson Sr. – Orofino, ID; US Navy, WWII, LST USS Oceanus

Gladys Le Breton (102) – St. Louis Plantation, LA; Civilian, WWII, submarine watch, Gulf of Mexico

Bill Moffett – Shawnee, KS; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO

Edward Puzio – Binghamton, NY US Army Air Corps, WWII, B-17 pilot

Vernon Sommerer – Jefferson City, MO; US Army, Japanese War Trials, MP

May-Blossom Wilkinson (101) – Wahiawa, HI; Women’s Army Volunteer Corps, Army Transport

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About GP

Everett Smith served with the Headquarters Company, 187th Regiment, 11th A/B Division during WWII. This site is in tribute to my father, "Smitty." GP is a member of the 11th Airborne Association. Member # 4511 and extremely proud of that fact!

Posted on January 16, 2023, in Uncategorized, WWII and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink. 117 Comments.

  1. Never knew that ending a war could be so messy. Not to mention the irony of relying on the enemy to keep the peace in the territory you’re taking back.

    Liked by 1 person

  2. I love your work; it is always very informative and interesting.

    Liked by 1 person

  3. Thanks for your like of my post, “The Kingdom Of God – Judgment On Israel;” you are very kind.

    Liked by 1 person

  4. This was a terrible surrender. This history was from the past. So many war zones now Russia it was such a conflict . So many humans were killed.
    Thanks Anita

    Like

    • MY POINT IN REHASHING HISTORY IS THAT POLITICIANS AND RULERS SHOULD HAVE LEARNED FROM IT. If they had, we would not have so many wars going on today.

      Like

  5. A vast undertaking that changed the world.

    Liked by 1 person

  6. Thanks for your like of my post, “The Kingdom Of God – Overview.” You are very kind.

    Like

  7. It’s beyond interesting to read about all the ‘side deals’ that had to be managed. Two details that come to mind include the fact that I haven’t read “Siam” in decades, and that I never have thought about the Dutch as colonial powers. Of course, once I started thinking about it, I realized that traces of their presence are everywhere, but at this point in time, they’re mostly talked about in terms of their engineering prowess. Dutch consultants have been in Houston in the recent past helping to design the so-called “Ike Dike” that’s being constructed to protect communities, the port, and the petro-chemical industry here.

    Like

  8. This was most interesting, GP. Placing other countries at the end of the war and what they were doing is a great history lesson.

    Liked by 1 person

  9. So much history in this post! Thank you so much for sharing this part of history with us!

    Liked by 1 person

  10. Fascinating, G. I never knew that Japanese troops were used to help keep the peace in various areas to avoid chaos. As for the colonial powers trying to maintain control, a sad story. –Curt

    Liked by 1 person

  11. Interesting how the seeds for the Vietnam and Korean wars were sown in the aftermath of the Japanese surrender.

    Liked by 3 people

  12. Wat komt er toch oneindig veel bij kijken voor zo’n overgave werkelijkeid wordt

    Liked by 3 people

  13. Thanks again for the history lesson, GP!

    Liked by 3 people

  14. GP, some interesting history about the complications of surrender that I had never heard about. Thanks!

    Liked by 3 people

  15. That was quite a history lesson today!

    Liked by 3 people

  16. I did not realize that the surrender could be so complicated. How tragic that it (again) laid the seeds for continuing conflicts.

    Liked by 2 people

  17. It’s been decades since this war which makes me wonder how Americans would respond today to this happening again. I suspect it wouldn’t be good, especially with the current horrible administration in Washington.

    Liked by 3 people

  18. Sukarno proclaimed Indonesia independent on August 17, 1945. Years later, in 1995, Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands made a state visit to Indonesia. Since the Dutch didn’t recognize Indonesian Independence till December 27, 1949, after a bitter few years of war, Queen Beatrix, who’d planned to start the visit on the 17th, had a ticklish situation to maneuver around. She eventually came four days later. A long video about this visit is in Dutch with English subtitles. Very interesting if you have the time!

    https://historibersama.com/state-visit-queen-beatrix/

    Liked by 2 people

  19. I was told of the outrage when released POWs in Singapore saw Japanese soldiers still carrying weapons and being used to maintain law and order. One of my dad’s friends who had been a Japanese POW never stopped talking about that. It enraged him to his dying day.
    Best wishes, Pete.

    Liked by 2 people

  20. Call me oblivious–I had no idea there were so many surrenders. And the Brits using Japanese soldiers to maintain law and order in the region–brilliant or nuts. Don’t know which.

    Liked by 2 people

  21. Amazing to me how many parts there were to the actual surrender. Would always be difficult to admit defeat.

    Liked by 2 people

    • I think many on the smaller islands, starving and abandoned by their country were quite ready for it all to end.
      I agree with you. I never heard any of this in school!!

      Like

  22. That chaos after the ‘surrender’ is glossed over in the history books. Great information, as always, GP.

    Liked by 2 people

  23. Thank you, GP, for explaining the end of colonialism with the help of the Japanese at the end of WW2! What an ironic twist in history!

    Liked by 2 people

  24. Thanks for the fascinating round up of the various Pacific surrenders. The end of the war created new challenges and issues for the world to deal with.

    Liked by 2 people

  25. The insanity goes on, but on a smaller scale than the World Wars. (Thank heavens!)

    Liked by 3 people

  26. Great post GP. I have learned so much after the Japanese surrender.

    Liked by 2 people

  27. The Vietnam war did not end until 1975.

    Liked by 2 people

  28. I’d forgotten about so many other places needing their own official surrenders. Just amazing.

    Liked by 2 people

  29. Thank you for that round up….it seems that war weariness precluded politicians from looking to the future instead of trying to recreate the past.
    Goodness only knows what precludes politicians from looking to the future now….but their short termism is selling us all down the river.

    Liked by 4 people

  30. Thanks for highlighting these otherwise “forgotten” surrenders.

    Liked by 3 people

  31. So many seeds of future conflict were sown at the end of that war. I wish we could just let people live their lives in peace. I liked seeing the Pittsburgh postcard cartoon. I hope you have a great week, GP.

    Liked by 3 people

  32. I noticed someone has already commented about the Indian forces. Of course, India had been eager to declare independence from the British Empire long before the World War. This was also pretty much the situation in other countries regarding their colonizers, too because they knew the window of opportunity to follow through would soon slam shut.

    Liked by 3 people

  33. Interesting write-up, GP. In some ways we are still living with the aftermath of WWII. In the 1960s it was interesting how WWII was still almost current events between the WWII leaders that were still in charge and the aftermath of the end of colonialism. What people today do not know about history is irresponsible. As always, love the ‘toons.

    Liked by 2 people

  34. important to see things all the way through to the very end, and as is shown here, if not, there are consequences

    Liked by 3 people

  35. That was very interesting and thank you for all those accounts about the Japanese finally leaving their “Co-prosperity” sphere. So many mistakes were made, particularly in Vietnam although I knew very little, if anything, about Korea. Presumably, all of those Red Army troops went home after they had stripped Manchuria of everything even remnotely of value!
    The attitude of the indians was extremely inconsistent. The Indian National Army, all collaborsators, fought on the side of the Japanese (43,000 men) yet the Indian Volunteer Army, on the side of the British, fought for the Empire and numbered 2.5 million men, the biggest volunteer army in history.

    Liked by 3 people

  36. Good stuff G.P. I just finished The Fleet at Flood Tide by Hornfischer and the Chapters on Saipan and Guam were just amazing. Because of the jap brutality toward civilians and fake surrenders, Marines did not take many prisoners during this campaign.

    Liked by 4 people

  37. Thank you, Ned.

    Like

  1. Pingback: Handling additional Pacific Surrenders | Ned Hamson's Second Line View of the News

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